40 - Testosterone was declared a controlled substance in...

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7/1/10 Testosterone was declared a controlled substance in 1991. Two stage model for anabolic steroid abuse and dependence: (1) weightlifters and bodybuilders initiate use for the anabolic effects; (2) continued use leads to dependence on psychoactive effects (Brower, 2002). Not just football players and bodybuilders (~90%) abuse steroids – many people do it for the effects they have on their egos or because they make them feel good about themselves. Is this linked to reinforcement? Anabolic steroids also used to treat AIDS-associated wasting and individuals with androgen deficiencies, but without evidence of abuse or development of dependence.
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7/1/10 Abuser can achieve circulating androgen levels one hundred times higher than those found in adult males. Abusers are usually remarkably well informed about the drugs they are taking and freely acknowledge the effects the drugs have on them. Are androgens truly reinforcing? 1. Anecdotal evidence that greater doses are taken in successive drug cycles. 2. Users experience a “crash” after cycles 3. Some reports of euphorigenic effects of anabolic steroids
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7/1/10 Animal studies demonstrating reinforcing properties of anabolic steroids 1. Conditioned place preference in mice and rats (including testosterone injections directly into the n. accumbens). 1. Self-administration: (a) oral self-administration of testosterone by hamsters seen in two-bottle choice and food-induced drinking; (b) iv testosterone self-administration in rats and hamsters; (c) icv testosterone self-administration directly into lateral ventricles .
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7/1/10 It appears as though (at least in rats) steroids are mild reinforcers like caffeine, nicotine or benzodiazepines not strong reinforcers like cocaine or heroin. But… it is hard to quit smoking! So, are anabolic steroids addictive?
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This note was uploaded on 06/30/2010 for the course NEU 385 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

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40 - Testosterone was declared a controlled substance in...

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