Handout21Mutations

Handout21Mutations - BIS101/Engebrecht Handout21Mutations...

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BIS101/Engebrecht Handout21Mutations Transitions = base changes from one purine (A and G) to another purine, or one pyrimidine (C and T) to another pyrimidine Example: A G, T C Transversion = base changes from a purine to a pyrimidine or a pyrimidine to a purine Example: A C and A T; G T and G C These may or may not result in a change at the protein level as described below. Silent mutations ( or polymorphisms / synonymous mutations) = base change in the open reading frame of a protein coding gene that does not lead to a change in the amino acid sequence. These are often (but not always) in the 3 rd codon position because of the degeneracy of the genetic code. Example: TTT TTC, both encode phenylalanine Neutral mutations = base change in the open reading frame of a protein coding gene that leads to a change in the amino acid sequence that does not affect function of the protein. Therefore, if there is no phenotype, the mutation is said to be neutral.
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Handout21Mutations - BIS101/Engebrecht Handout21Mutations...

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