AppA_Foundations

AppA_Foundations - Instructors Manual, Appendix A 1...

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Instructor’s Manual, Appendix A 1 APPENDIX A THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT APPENDIX OUTLINE I. The Evolution of Management Documents the Evolution and Revolutions of management approaches over the last 100 years. A. Early management concepts and influences 1. The historical perspective is divided into two major sections the classical and the contemporary approaches. Many of these approaches developed simultaneously, and impacted on one another. 2. Some approaches were a direct reaction to the perceived deficiencies of previous approaches. Others developed as the needs and issues confronting mangers changed over the years. B. Classical approaches 1. Systematic management – This approach attempted to build specific procedures and processes into operations to ensure coordination of effort. Emphasized economical operations, adequate staffing, maintenance of inventories to meet consumer demand, and organizational control. 2. Scientific management – Advocated the application of scientific methods to analyze work and to determine how to complete production tasks efficiently. 3. Administrative management – Emphasized the perspective of senior managers within the organization, and argued that management was a profession and could be taught. 4. Human relations – Developed during the early 1930s and aimed at understanding how psychological and social processes interact with the work situation to influence performance. Was the first major approach to emphasize informal work relationships and worker satisfaction? C. Contemporary approaches Quantitative management – emphasized the application of quantitative analysis to management decisions and problems. These include such techniques as statistical decision theory, linear programming, queuing theory, simulation, forecasting, inventory modeling, network modeling, and break-even analysis. RESPONSES TO THE APPENDIX DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. How does today’s world compare with one of 40 years ago? What is different about today, and what is not so different? The world today is far more complex than it was at the time of the American Industrial Revolution. Not only are there many more potential consumers, but it has become a truly global marketplace with worldwide customers. Communication is now instantaneous rather than taking weeks or months. Goods can now be transported from one side of the world to another in days. Competition can now come from any part of the world. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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2 What is not so different is that business still needs people to help it generate goods and services, and it still needs customers to purchase them. Furthermore, while the typical consumers’ expectations are substantially greater these days, they are still looking for value for their money. 2.
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AppA_Foundations - Instructors Manual, Appendix A 1...

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