Unformatted text preview: The Biological Perspective The Biological Perspective Neurons & Nerves Sending the Message to Other Cells Organization of the Nervous System Structures of the Brain Structure of the Neuron Dendrites Soma Axon (& Myelin) Axon Terminals Synaptic Knobs Sending the Message to other Cells
1. 1. 2. 3. Dendrites are stimulated and this starts an electrical signal (the “action potential”). Action potential travels down the axon to terminal buttons. Chemicals (neurotransmitters) are released into synapse; & Neurotransmitters stimulate dendrite of next neuron. Neurotransmitters (NTs) Neurotransmitters (NTs)
s Ach (acetylcholine) causes
s Excessive Ach causes (eg, s Inhibition of Ach causes (eg, NTs & behavior, cont. NTs & behavior, cont.
Monoamines (3 in this category) 1. Dopamine (DA)
s Too little = s Too much = s Plays role in s Affects s Affects 2. Norepinephrine (NE) 3. Serotonin NTs, cont. NTs, cont. GABA –. Endorphins are. They cause . Eg) Drugs and NTs Drugs and NTs
2 main categories of drugs: 1. Agonists mimic natural NT; bind with and stimulate receptor s Eg) s Eg) 2. Antagonists bind with receptor but don’t stimulate it. They block receptor from effect of natural NTs s Eg) Drugs and NTs Drugs and NTs
s Some drugs block reuptake of NTs SSRI cocaine Organization of the Nervous System Organization of the Nervous System Central Nervous System . Peripheral Nervous System –. Menu From the Bottom Up: The Structures of From the Bottom Up: The Structures of the Brain
The Brain Stem is the most primitive part and includes: Medulla – controls “vital” functions (eg, heart rate, breathing, & swallowing) Pons – fibers connecting brainstem and higher brain (affects sleep and arousal). Brain stem, cont. Brain Reticular Formation Selective attention Pain Sleep & arousal Cerebellum coordination of movement; balance Structures under the Cortex Structures
The Limbic system – controls emotions, The motivation, attention & memory. It includes: motivation, Thalamus – Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Hippocampus – Hippocampus Amygdala – Amygdala The Cortex The Cortex The cortex is the outer surface of the brain & is divided into 2 halves, called cerebral hemispheres These are connected by the Corpus Callosum. In Class Activity # 2: The Split Brain In Class Activity # 2: The Split Brain As you watch the video clip on the “Split Brain”, answer these questions: 1. What is a “split brain”? 2. When is it created, and why? 3. What are some of the side effects of having a “split brain”? The Lobes and Their Specialties The 1. 2. 3. Occipital lobe – contains Primary Visual Cortex . Parietal lobe contains Somatosensory Cortex . Temporal lobe – contains Primary Auditory Cortex The lobes, cont. The lobes, cont.
1. Frontal lobe – contains the Motor Cortex Prefrontal lobe The Association Areas of the Cortex The The Association Areas are areas in each lobe that connect incoming sensory info with stored memories & knowledge. Broca’s Area (left frontal lobe) – Broca’s Aphasia Wernicke’s area (left temporal lobe) – Wernicke’s Aphasia Hemispheric Specialization Hemispheric Specialization Left brain functions: Right brain functions: ...
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- Fall '08
- Hemispheric Specialization Hemispheric Specialization