Circuit Vanabbs figure 1.2 a A tT scan ofan adLrtt head. electrical components that often operate atspeeds andpowerlevels close to fundamenlal physical limits, including th.3 speed ol light and the thermo dynamic laws, Control systems use electric signals to regulate processes, Examples include the control of tempemtures, pressures, and flow mtes in an oil refinery; the fuel-air mixlure in a fuel-injected automobile engine;mecha-nisms such as the molors,doors, and lights in elevators;and the locks in the Panama Canal. The autopilot and autolanding systems that help to fly and land airyIanes aie also familiar control systems Power syst€ms generate and distribute electric power.Electric power, which is the foundatior of our technology-based society, usually is gener-ated in large quartities by nuclear, hydroelectric, and thermal (coal-, oil-, or gas-fired) generato$. Power is distributed by a grid of conductors that
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