1.4 Voltage and CLr ent11 describe the interconnection with mathematical equation$ For the mathe-matical equations to be useful,we must write them in terms of measurablequantities.In the case of circuits. these quantities are voltage and current,whjch we discuss in Section 1.4. The study of circuit analysis involvesunderstanding the behavior of each ideal circuit element in terms of itsvoltage and current and understanding the constraints imposed on thevoltage and current as a result of interconnccting the ideal elcmcnts-1.4 Vottage and Current The concept of electric charge is the basis for describing all electrical phe-nomena. Let's review some important characteristics of electric charge.. The charge is bipolar, meaDing that electrical effects are described interms of positive and negative charges. . The electric charge exists in discrete quanrities, which are integral
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