t2Figure 1.5 A An id€albask circuit ehment.Although current is made up of discrete, moving elechons, w€ do notneed to consider them hdividualy because of the enormous number ofthem. Rather, we can think of electrons and thei corresponding charge asone smoothly flowing entity. Thus, i is heated as a continuous variable.One advantage of using circuit models is that we can model a compo,rent stricUy in terms of tie voltage and current at its terminals. Thus twophysically different components could have the same relationshipbetween the teminal voltage and terminal current. lf they do, for pur-poses of circuit analysis, they are identical. Once we know how a compo-nent behaves at its terminals, we can anal'ze its behavior in a circuit.However, when developing circuit models, we are interested in a compo-nent's intemal behavior. We might want to know, for example, whethercharge conduction is taking place because of free electrons moving
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