24Figure 2.1^ Ihe circuii symbob for G)an ideatinde-pendent vothge source and (b)an jdeat independent2.1 Voltage and Current SourcesBefoie aliscussing ideal voltageand curent sources, we need to considerthe general nature of electncal sources. An elechical sourc€ is a devjcethat is capable oI converting nonelectric en€rgy to electric energy ard viceversa. A discharging battery converts chemical energy to electric energy,whereas a battery being charged converts electric energy to chemicalenergy. A dynamo is a machhe that conveits mechanical energy to electdcenergy and vice versa.If operaling in the mechanical-to-electic mode, it iscalled a generator. If transforming ftom electric to mechanical energy, it isreferred to as a motor. The impotant thing to remember about thesesourcesis tlat theY can eitler deliver or absorb elect c power, generallymaintaining either voltage or current. This behavior is of particularinterest for circuit analysis and led to the creation of the ideal voltagesource and the ideal current source as basic circuit elements.The chal-
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