94 Techniques of Cncuit Anatysis 4.1 Ternninology To discuss the more involved methods of circuit analysis, we must define a few basic terms. So far. all the circuits presented have been planar circuits-that is, those circuits that can be drawn on a plane with nooossing branches. A circuit that is drawn witb crossing branches still isconsidered planar if it can be redrawn with no crossover branches. For example, the circuit shown in Fig. 4.1(a) can be redrawn as Fig 41(b);the circuits are equivalent because all the node connections have been maintained. Therefore, Fig.4.1(a) is a plarar circuit because it can beredmwn as one. Figure 4.2 shows a nonplanar circuit-it cannot beredra$n in such a way that all the node connections are maintained and no branches overlap.
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