94Techniques of Cncuit Anatysis4.1 TernninologyTo discuss the more involved methods of circuit analysis, we must definea few basic terms. So far. all the circuits presented have been planarcircuits-that is, those circuits that can be drawn on a plane with nooossing branches. A circuit that is drawn witb crossing branches still isconsidered planar if it can be redrawn with no crossover branches. Forexample, the circuit shown in Fig. 4.1(a) can be redrawn as Fig 41(b);the circuits are equivalent because all the node connections have beenmaintained. Therefore, Fig.4.1(a) is a plarar circuit because it can beredmwn as one. Figure 4.2 shows a nonplanar circuit-it cannot beredra$n in sucha way that all the node connections are maintained andno branches overlap. The node-voltage method is applicable to both pla_nai and nonplanar circuits, whereas the mesh-current method is limitedto planar circuits.Describing a Circuit-The vocabularyIn Section 1.5we defined an ideal basic circuit element.When basic cir-
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