Higher quality leads to greater demand, to greater market
share, to greater economies of scale. Additionally, higher quality
leads to less scrap, rework, and warranty cost, hence to less input
required for same output.
Baldrige Award Categories, Items and Point Values
2.0 Strategic Planning
3.0 Customer and Market Focus
Customer and Market Knowledge
Customer Satisfaction and Relationships
4.0 Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge
Measurement of Organizational Performance
Information and Knowledge Mngt.
5.0 Human Resource Focus
Employee Well-Being and Satisfaction
6.0 Process Management
Value Creation Processes
7.0 Business Results
Product and Service Results
Financial and Market Results
Human Resource Results
Organizational Effectiveness Results
Governance and Social Responsibility
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 2005 Criteria for
Performance Excellence at http:www.quality.nist.gov.
Of Deming’s 14 points, “finding problems” is certainly one of
the three. The selection of the other two is not as clear-cut. Many
would say “reducing fear” is important, but its purpose is really to
find problems. The first point, on getting management to put forth
common goals and stick with them—“constancy of purpose”—is
our second choice. The third is “methods”—not giving goals
without providing the methods to achieve them.
Six concepts for an effective TQM program: continuous im-
provement, employee involvement, benchmarking, Just-in-Time,
Taguchi concepts, and knowledge of TQM tools. The 14 points
were Deming’s way of showing how he implemented TQM.
Deming (14 points, leadership and training; good workers
cannot overcome bad processes); Crosby (Quality is Free–the cost
of poor quality is underestimated); and Juran (top management
involvement in quality is vital).
The seven tools of TQM are:
Statistical process control chart
If there is fear, people will not bring up problems. If there is
no pride in work, there is no motivation. If management does not
lead by example, why should employees care?
A university can seek to control the quality of its graduates by:
Setting specific goals for its overall accomplishments
Employing quality faculty
Setting appropriate standards (prerequisites, GPA, required
credit hours, etc.)
Employing appropriate evaluation devices (quizzes, ex-
aminations, term papers, etc.)
Philip B. Crosby believed that quality is free, because on bal-