Protein-fluid - Protein Greek prime importance Protein...

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Protein Greek “prime importance”
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Protein Basics Main difference from CHO & fats is that protein contains nitrogen Amino acids are the building blocks Each amino acid has a distinctive side chain— differs in size, shape & electrical charge (neutral, negative or positive) There about 20 amino acids with 9 being essential— can’t be made by the body at all or at the rate needed Some amino acids are conditionally essential based on special circumstances or inherited diseases
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Protein formation Formed by a combination of amino acid 1 amine group of an amino acid joins with the acid group of another forming a peptide bond Several dozen to 300 amino acids are joined together to form a protein There is almost an infinite number of amino acids combinations & therefore, proteins
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Protein Formation Amino acids may be attracted or repelled by Globular or fibrous structures are formed
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Protein Formation The electrically charged side chains are attracted to water Neutral side chains are repelled by water but are attracted to each other in the inside of the protein structure To be functional, several strands may cluster together or a mineral or vitamin may join the unit to activate it
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Protein Shape and Function Shapes of proteins enable them to perform different functions Globular shape of blood protein allows it to be water-soluble Some proteins form hollow balls that all it to carry other substances inside Proteins may form wide rod-like structures— collagen in tendons
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Hemoglobin Structure
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Genetics of Protein Formation For each protein, there is only 1 proper sequence of amino acids, which is inherited All cells contain DNA to make each type of protein Synthesis of different proteins happens in response to changing conditions of the body – ex. Insulin & antibodies Nutrients often modulate the expression of genes in the production of inherited types of proteins Disease states can result in abnormal sequencing of amino acids
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Breaking Down Protein Proteins must be broken down into a useable form Can be broken down by heat, alcohol, acids, bases, or salts of heavy metals 1. Heat of cooking starts the denaturation process 2. In the stomach, acids (pH = 1.5) split peptide bonds The stomach lining is made of protein but is protected from denaturation by mucous secreted by its cells
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Breaking Down Protein 1. Polypeptides move into the small intestines with a neutral pH 2. Enzymes from the pancreas & intestines breakdown protein into small fragments & single amino acids 3. Amino acids are absorbed in the intestines & transported in the blood to the liver; a few larger molecules may make it into blood Certain intestinal cells absorb certain amino acids—can limit rate of absorption or cause competitive absorption
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6. The liver uses the amino acids or releases
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This note was uploaded on 07/05/2010 for the course NH 311 taught by Professor Dawson during the Spring '10 term at Oakland University.

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Protein-fluid - Protein Greek prime importance Protein...

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