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PA_safety - Why participate in physical activity 1 Lowers...

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Why participate in physical activity? 1. Lowers risk of most major diseases 2. Supports mental & emotional well-being 3. Supports immune function 4. Promotes physical health & well-being
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Components of Fitness 1. Flexibility Especially important with aging—allows for performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) & prevention of falls
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Components of Fitness 1. Strength – achieved with weight training Building back & abdominal muscles helps with posture Helps prevent decline of physical mobility Leg strength & walking endurance are strong indicators of an older person’s physical ability
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Components of Fitness 1. Endurance Need oxygen provided by heart & lungs Total blood volume & number of red blood cells increases Builds respiratory & heart muscles & improves efficiency (> stroke volume)
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Components of Fitness 1. Cardiorespiratory health – allows for efficient delivery of oxygen Need sustained activity of 20 minutes or more to achieve beneficial effects Contraction of skeletal muscles helps propell blood against gravity
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Fuels for Activity Depends on intensity, duration & prior training Rest : slightly more than half of energy comes from fatty acids the rest comes from CHO & a small amount from protein Activity : initial energy sources come from stored glycogen in muscles as activity continues, the liver & fat cells release glycogen & fatty acids
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Glycogen (Carbohydrate) Glycogen is the storage form of glucose Found in the muscle & liver As levels of glucose in the blood decline, the liver releases glycogen Stores are continually being repleted With vigorous activity, can be depleted in a few hours
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Intensity Moderate (aerobic) – adequate 0 2 is available to muscles so the body can use both glucose & fatty acids for energy Strenuous (anaerobic) – fatty acids can’t be used due to 0 2 deficiency so muscles depend heavily on glycogen stores Results in the production of lactic acid Accumulation of lactic acid, results in hormone release that increases heart & respiratory rate to try to breakdown lactic acid Lactic acid build up results in burning muscles followed by fatigue Once the activity slows, the lactic acid is metabolized & used for energy or the production of glucose
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Duration 1 st 10 min, muscle relies on glycogen As moderate activity continues, muscles pull glucose from the blood & blood sugar drops After 20 min, the muscles begin to use < glucose & rely more on fat for fuel As glycogen stores become depleted, the liver produces some glucose from lactic acid & certain amino acids When hypoglycemia accompanies glycogen depletion, CNS function becomes minimal making activity hard (hitting the wall)
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Training strategies for postponing exhaustion due to depletion of glucose 1. Eat a high carbohydrate diet 2. Take in glucose during activity Beneficial if activity last for hours & requires bursts of intense energy (soccer, hockey) Not likely beneficial in activities that last < 1 hour
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Training strategies for postponing
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