Carbs - Carbo from carbon Hydrate from water Glucose: The...

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Unformatted text preview: Carbo from carbon Hydrate from water Glucose: The bodies main source of energy Broken down in the body to energy, CO2, & water Excess glucose is converted to fat Fat can be used as an alternative fuel if carbohydrate or protein are available Fat alone can be used as energy in the form of ketones Need 100 -150 gm carbohydrate for protein sparing effect Storage & Release of Glucose When glucose enters the bloodstream, insulin is secreted Glucose enters the cell & is used Muscle & liver store glucose; a very small amount is stored in the brain The liver releases stored glucose in response to pancreatic glucagon Different foods affect blood glucose & insulin levels differently glycemic effect Glucose storage cont. Excess energy (glucose, protein, fat) is converted to the storage form in the liver & sent to fat tissue for storage No limit to the amount of fat that can be stored Takes energy to convert carbohydrate to fat but storing fat takes very little energy Blood Glucose Regulation Pancreatic Hormones Glucagon secreted in response to low blood sugar; stimulates the conversion of glycogen in the liver to glucose Insulin secreted in response to high blood sugars; allows glucose to enter the cell & be used as energy or converted to fat Fiber 1. Soluble digested by intestinal bacteria 1. Insoluble structure remains intact & is excreted in undigested form Benefits of Fiber Provide a few calories if broken down by intestinal flora Gives feeling of fullness Provides bulk to stool for regularity Help maintain healthy intestinal flora Feeds colonocytes Aid in controlling blood sugar & reducing cholesterol Excess Fiber 1. May displace nutrients a) bind nutrients b) decrease transit time 2. Can cause bloating, distention, & gas May decrease intake May cause constipation Understanding fiber labeling 1. Bran 2. Enriched 3. Fortified 4. Stone ground 5. Wheat flour 6. Whole grain 7. Whole wheat flour Carbohydrate Recommendations 45-75% of total calories from carbohydrates Consume a minimum of 130 gm/day No more than 25% of total calories from added sugar Consume more than 25 gm fiber/day Carbohydrate Controversies Constipation Pre- & Probiotics Glycemic Index Disease Prevention Sugar Substitutes High Fructose Corn Syrup Fiber and Constipation Constipation less than 3 bowel movements per week (NIH definition) Reduces stool weight Associated with higher risk for colon cancer Usually temporary (symptom rather than disease) Fiber and Constipation Signs & Symptoms of Constipation Dry, small hard stool that is difficult to pass and may be painful Bloating Sensation of full bowel Fiber and Constipation Physiology of constipation 1. End products of digestion make their way to the colon where water is absorbed....
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Carbs - Carbo from carbon Hydrate from water Glucose: The...

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