honbio_human_systems

honbio_human_systems - Thematic Unit on Human Physiology...

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Thematic Unit on Human Physiology Skeletal, Muscular and Integumentary System Nervous System and Sense Organs Circulatory and Respiratory System Infectious Disease and the Immune System Digestive and Excretory System Endocrine and Reproductive Systems Drugs
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Tissues
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Skeleton
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Ossification (bone formation) Ossification is the process of bone formation, in which connective tissues, such as cartilage are turned to bone or bone-like tissue. The ossified tissue is invaginated with blood vessels. These blood vessels bring minerals like calcium and deposit it in the ossifying tissue. Bone formation is a dynamic process, with cells called osteoblasts depositing minerals, and osteoclasts removing bone. This process, termed bone remodeling continues throughout life. FYI: Evolution: Several hypotheses have been proposed for how bone evolved as a structural element in vertebrates. One popular idea is that bone developed from tissues that evolved to store minerals. In this model, minerals such as calcium were stored in cartilage, and that bone was an exaptation from this ossified cartilage. However, other possibilities include bony tissue evolving as an osmotic barrier, or as a protective structure.
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Bones Haversion canal Periosteum Osteocyte cells between hydroxylapatite bone mineral matrix. 70% of bone is made up of the inorganic mineral hydroxylapatite: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
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How bone cells develop and create bone mineral matrix hydroxyapatite
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Bone
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Epiphyseal Plates (bone elongation) Whereas endochondral ossification (turning chondrocytes into bone) is responsible for the initial bone development from cartilage in utero and infants, the epiphyseal plate is responsible for longitudinal growth of bones. The plate's chondrocytes are under constant division by mitosis. These daughter cells stack facing the epiphysis while the older cells are pushed towards the diaphysis. As the older chondrocytes degenerate, osteoblasts ossify the remains to form new bone. Around the end of puberty, the epiphyseal cartilage cells stop duplicating and the entire cartilage is slowly replaced by bone, leaving only a thin epiphyseal line.
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Joints
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Joints (cont)
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Functions of the Muscular System Involuntary Some involuntary functions of the muscular system are muscles to help you breathe, make your heart beat, and help move food through the digestive system. Voluntary Some voluntary functions of the muscular system are like playing piano, running, playing video games, and throwing a ball.
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Smooth muscles - acts on the lining of passageways and internal organs. Skeletal muscles - these are attached to the bone and cause body movements Cardiac Muscles - is a type of striated muscle that forms the wall of the heart Problems of the Muscle System Bruise - is a area of discolored skin that appears after an injury. Tendonitis
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honbio_human_systems - Thematic Unit on Human Physiology...

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