III. Mind-body problem

III. Mind-body problem - III. The Mind/Body Problem Vspace...

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III. The Mind/Body Problem Vspace Reading: Materialism vs. Dualism Searle, “Minds, Brains, and Computers” Star Trek NG, “The Measure of Man”
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A. Is the Mind Nothing but the Brain? Materialism vs. Dualism Is a person made up of one kind of basic stuff or two? Q: Which do you think is true and why ?
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Dualism I am not identical to my body It is logically (although not technologically) possible for me to be in a different body http://www.imdb.com/video/cbs/vi2420441113
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Arguments for Dualism +1: My mental states are private No one else has access to them Unlike my body Everyone can see my toes and (potentially) my brain You might be able to infer what’s going on in my mind, but only I have direct access Since mental states are private but brain states  aren’t, mental states can’t be identically the  same as brain states
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Arguments for Dualism +2: My mental states are incorrigible Incorrigibility: I can’t be wrong about it Only I can know how things seem to me at a given instant and not be wrong about it Brain states are not Since mental states have this property but brain states don’t, mental states can’t be identical to brain states
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Some evidence for dualism +1: Ghosts and parapsychology Materialist must deny these are real +2: Out of body experiences Again, Materialist must deny their reality
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Some evidence for dualism +3: For theists, sacred texts mention: A soul Doctrines of afterlife included: reincarnation, immortality of the soul, resurrection of body and soul
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Problems for Materialism -1: According to Materialism, my mental states  are caused by brain states, but mental  states don’t cause anything Hence, your desire to pick up the pen really  didn’t cause anything to happen Your desire was caused by some brain state which  then moved on to a new brain state 2-levels diagram (next)
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Brain states and mental states M1 M2
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Why is Materialism so popular among scientists and philosophers? Materialism in General: Metaphysical doctrine that all that exists is made up of matter and energy Today, more people would use “naturalism” Materialism in the mind-body debate is just a special case of materialism across the board
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Arguments for Materialism +1: Brain Science We can correlate brain activity with different experiences Can literally watch parts of the brain get more active when people are doing certain things Two companies are promoting “dynamic MRI’s” as means of lie-detection
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Arguments for Materialism Can also stimulate parts of the brain to produce memories and sensations Hence, what goes on in our conscious life directly corresponds to stuff going on in our brains
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Arguments for Materialism +2: Reductionism in Science As science has progressed, we are increasingly able to reduce high level phenomena to a lower level A. All matter has been reduced to atoms
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III. Mind-body problem - III. The Mind/Body Problem Vspace...

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