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Opiumheroinmetabolisedtomorphineincns morphine

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Unformatted text preview: sion in the nucleus accumbens (NA) Striatum - stereotypy (repetitive movement) Side Effects of Stimulant Use Acute (short term) • • • Seizures Depression & Anxiety Psychosis (particularly higher doses in some) Chronic (Long term) • • • • • Anxiety Paranoia Depression Psychosis Neurotoxicity Narcotics Narcotic: induces narcosis (sleep or stupor) = numbing • • • • • • • Opium, Heroin (metabolised to morphine in CNS) Morphine Methadone Fentanyl Hydromorphone Meperidine Codeine Major Effects of Opiates • • • Euphoria and well­being Drowsiness Relief of pain Opiates Activation of mu opiate receptors directly act in the NA and indirectly stimulate dopamine release in the NA by cells in the VTA (mu & delta opiate receptors) Opiates (Morphine) Opiates bind to: • • • • Cortex: movement/sensory Cingulate cortex: judgement Thalamus & Spinal Cord : pain centre ­ analgesia Side Effects of Opiate Use • • • • Chronic constipation Tolerance and withdrawal symptoms when stop use Coma/death from OD due to low tolerance Coma/death due to mix with depressants Consciousness­altering Hallucinogens/psychedelics: produce hallucinations Hallucinogens/psychedelics: • • • • • • • MDMA (“E”) Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD “Acid”) 2,5­dimethoxy­4­iodoamphetamine (DOI) Phencyclidine (PCP, “angel dust”) Psilocybin (“magic” mushrooms) Mescali...
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