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ANTH106-week6-Addiction-and-Reward-Kraushaar-lecture-notes-outline

Gmethalcohol v nowthenewstuff nowthenewstuff

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Unformatted text preview: agnify normal effects (affinity & efficacy) • Some drugs act as ANTAGONISTS and prevent normal functions (affinity only) • Mixing drugs can have positive or negative interactions (e.g.: Meth + Alcohol) V Now the new stuff…. @ Now the new stuff…. Many substances are abused by humans including: • Stimulants, Narcotics, Consciousness­altering drugs, Depressants & Neuroleptics Stats: Australia Drug Tobacco Alcohol Illicit Marijuana 33.5 9.1 18.8 Lifetime 44.6 89.9 Recent 19.4 82.9 Av. Age Start 15.8 17 2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey 23,356 people, 14 years and over Heroin Methadone GHB Amphetamines Cocaine Hallucinogens Ecstasy/Design Injected? 1.6 0.3 0.5 6.3 5.9 6.7 8.9 1.9 0.2 0.1 0.1 2.3 1.6 0.6 3.5 0.5 21.9 23.3 24.6 20.9 23.1 19.6 22.6 21.3 Stimulants Stimulant: arouses or accelerates activities • • • Cocaine Amphetamine (“Speed”) Amphetamine derivatives o Methamphetamine (“Ice”), o Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “E”), o Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), o Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), o Paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA, “death”) Methylphenidate (Ritalin for ADHD) Mephedrone (4­methylmethcathinone, Miaow, MMCAT) Nicotine (Tobacco) Caffeine (Coffee, Chocolate) Psycho stimulant: stimulates the brain • • • • • Major Effects of Stimulants (Short term) • • • • • Euphoria & well­being Increased alertness Increased self­confidence Increased energy Ecstasy (MDMA) & Mephedrone (Miaow) are also ENTACTOGENS (touchy feely) o promotes closeness to others Cocaine & Amphetamine Amphetamines affect similar regions to cocaine Both increase dopamine transmis...
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