ANTH106-week6-Addiction-and-Reward-Kraushaar-lecture-notes-outline

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Unformatted text preview: Dopamine R @ eward & Dopamine . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – IV) Drug Dependence Physiological Components of Dependence P @ hysiological Components of Dependence • Tolerance ­ loss of effect of a drug with repeated administration • Withdrawal ­ appearance of symptoms associated with termination of chronic drug use • Neuroadaptive processes to counter the acute effects of the drug • A key element in drug dependence is sensitisation: • the increased response to a drug following repeated administration • LONG TERM (chronic) neuroadaptations which are manifested after repeated drug administration • Long term use: anxiety, paranoia, psychotic episodes • High incidence of relapse ­ intense cravings • A state characterised by: o A compulsion to seek and take the drug continuously or periodically. o Inability to control intake. o Negative emotional state when access to the drug is denied. • Often failure to function in society o relationships breakdown ­ work, family & friends o increase in crime rates to support habit o big socioeconomic problem ($20 billion/year) For more info: Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy • Addiction has both positive and negative reinforcement processes Addiction A @ ddiction O3 Part Cycle of Addiction • Binge Intoxication o Drug/Alcohol self­administration o Conditioned placed preference • Withdrawal/Negative Affect o Anxiety like responses o Elevated reward thresholds Animal Models of Addiction A @ nimal Models of Addiction • Preoccupation/Anticipation (Craving) o Reinstatement (relapse) Drug induced, cue­induced, stress induced • Rat...
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