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Cambpell49hand - The Nervous system II:CNS and PNS Billions...

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The Nervous system II:CNS and PNS Billions of nerve cells working together to rapidly transmit signals throughout the body 1.Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and Spinal Cord Receives and integrates information from the PNS Sends output signals through PNS to effect response (if any) 2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Afferent (sensory neurons): Send information to the CNS Efferent neurons (this includes motor neurons) : Transmit messages from CNS to effector cells (e.g. muscles and glands) The peripheral nervous system (PNS) Peripheral nervous system o Sensory neurons relay information to the CNS o Efferent neurons send info back to body PNS: Structure Cranial nerves Connect brain with regions of head and upper body Most contain both afferent and efferent branches Spinal Nerves: Consist of afferent and efferent branches from body to spinal cord Divisions of the PNS Somatic (voluntary): Controls skeletal muscles Autonomic (involuntary): Generally control internal organs (Enteric controls digestive functions)
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Two main branches of autonomic system usually work in opposition to each other Sympathetic: Stimulates organs needed during “fight or flight” response o Increase heart and breathing o Stimulates release of adrenalin o Stimulates release of glucose for energy Parasympathetic: Stimulates energy saving responses o Stimulates digestion o Decreases heart and breathing to save energy Exercise will stimulate autonomic system like the fight or flight response This will serve to increase cardiac output and respiration Increase blood flow to working skeletal muscles Stimulate sweat production to get rid of excess heat Dilate pupils to assist in eyesight Stimulate energy release to muscles Decrease blood flow to less important body parts digestion Increase mean blood pressure (but remember, this will be tempered by decrease of peripheral resistance as local skeletal muscle arterioles vasodilate to allow blood flow into muscles). The central nervous system (CNS) Brain: Main integrating center of body Spinal Cord: lies inside spinal column and helps relay incoming and outgoing messages to brain
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Development of the Human Brain Structure of the Brain The
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The Brainstem Consists of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata Major functions o Homeostasis o Regulate heart rate, breathing rate,digestion,blood vessel constriction o Coordinated movement o Relay information to/from PNS to higher brain regions
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Cambpell49hand - The Nervous system II:CNS and PNS Billions...

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