Mycmbell41 - Table 4-1 Energy: the capacity to do work Two...

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Unformatted text preview: Table 4-1 Energy: the capacity to do work Two ways life obtains energy: Autotrophs :Producers; Convert sunlight energy into chemical bond energy Heterotrophs : Harvest energy from chemical bond energy in plant and animal tissue Overview: The Need to Feed Overview: The Need to Feed Food is taken in, taken apart, and taken Food is taken in, taken apart, and taken up in the process of animal up in the process of animal nutrition nutrition In general, animals fall into three In general, animals fall into three categories: categories: Herbivores Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae) algae) Carnivores Carnivores eat other animals eat other animals Omnivores Omnivores regularly consume animals as well regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter as plants or algal matter What should my double double provide? Chemical Energy (ATP) for metabolism Organic building blocks Essential nutrients that I cannot make What are these essential nutrients you speak of? Essential amino acids Essential fatty acids Vitamins Proteins Made up of combinations of 20 different amino acids. Proteins are the major structural component that makes up all cells and are used to build up muscle tissue Proteins Proteins also include all of the enzymes, antibodies, and most hormones of the body. Proteins are used as an energy source only if carbohydrates and fats are limiting. Essential amino acids (8/20): we cannot make; must include in diet. Non-essential amino acids : We can synthesize Complete proteins : Contain all essential amino acids in proper ratio Incomplete proteins: lacks one or more essential amino acids Meat and dairy products offer the highest amounts of complete proteins Vegetarians and vegans need to monitor and possibly use supplements Sources of complete proteins Vegetarians need to combine sources of protein to get proper amounts of essential amino acids: 60% grain products 35% legumes 5% green leafy vegetables Lactovegetarian diet: milk products can provide some protein Functions of lipids Cholesterol is used to make all steroid hormones Carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) Hunger suppressor: Slow digestion and absorption from GI tract Recommended lipid intake 35% of dietary intake Unsaturated fats at aroun 90%; limit cholesterol<300mgs day (one egg yolk). Carbon-based life:Organic Chemistry Types of Lipids: Simple lipids Triglycerides: head region of glycerol + addition of 3 fatty acid molecules Each fatty acid can have different length of hydrocarbon chains Addition of each fatty acid to glycerol using dehydration synthesis Figure 2-8 (2 of 6) Essential fatty acids: Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids Essential fatty acids are those that cannot be made by the body and need to be included in our diet. Omega-3 fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acid in which 1 st double bond is found in the third carbon of the hydrocarbon chain. Omega-6 fatty acids...
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2010 for the course BIOLOGY bild 2 taught by Professor Schroeder during the Spring '09 term at UCSD.

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Mycmbell41 - Table 4-1 Energy: the capacity to do work Two...

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