Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases1) Brønsted Acid: a proton donor (e.g. H-A); Brønsted Base: a proton acceptor (e.g. B);2) the strength of an acid is measured by its acid dissociation constant or equivalently its pKa values (pKa=-logKa)3) strong acid: pH¶, [H+]µ, Kaµ, pKa¶; weak acid: pHµ, [H+]¶, Ka¶, pKaµ; 2
Acidity Increases with Increasing Anion Stability“an acid is strongerif its conjugate base is weaker (e.g. more stable anion or lower basicity)”HAA¯+ H+What makes the conjugate base weaker?Key factors:1)electronegativity;2)induction;3)atomic size;4)resonance stabilization;5)hybridization;3
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Electronegativity“the more electronegative the anionic atom in the conjugate base, the greaterits ability to carry the negative charge”CH4H2ONH3HFwithin the same row of the periodic tableH+H+H+H+++++CH3NH2OHFincreasing electronegativityincreasing anion stabilityincreasing acidity4