nucleic_acids_denatured_and_renatured

nucleic_acids_denatured_and_renatured - Nucleic Acids...

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cleic Acids Nucleic Acids
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entral Dogma of Biology Central Dogma of Biology
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ucleic Acids Nucleic Acids NA: deoxyribonucleic acids DNA: deoxyribonucleic acids Carrier of the genetic information RNA: ribonucleic acids RNA Th mRNA The message rRNA The machine tRNA The keys snRNA, miRNA, siRNA other cool stuff
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NA Structures DNA Structures NA and RNA are DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides Purines: yrimidines: Thymine in Pyrimidines: Thymine in DNA Uracil in RNA
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ases Bases member ring member ring 6 member ring 5 member ring Aromatic ring systems with delocalized pi electrons. All bases absorb energy in the UV range of the EM spectrum
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d RNA DNA an d RNA DNA
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gars in nucleic acids Sugars in nucleic acids eoxyribose DNA Deoxyribose DNA Ribose: RNA
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gar conformation Sugar conformation A type helix B type helix These 2 conformations have the substituents on the rings in the staggered orienta
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ucleosides Nucleosides gar attaches at Sugar attaches Sugar attaches at purine N9 at pyrimidine N1
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ucleotides Nucleotides
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The bond that connects the nucleotides is a phosphodiester ond etween bond between the C5’ carbon f one ribose of one ribose and the C3’ carbon of another The linkage is the same in RNA. In RNA the sugar is ribose in DNA it is deoxyribose
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Two strands of DNA associate in an antiparallel orientation with A bases teracting with T bases interacting with T bases, and G bases interact with C bases: each of these is a “base pair”
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The direction of the phosphate sugar linkage is different in the two strands
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Bases can be drawn in two forms Keto and enol. The keto form dominates. Changes in structure can ad to mutations lead to mutations. How?
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hemistry of spontaneous mutation Chemistry of spontaneous mutation C mismatches GT mismatches AC mismatches Chemical mutagenesis later
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hree types of DNA helices Three types of DNA helices
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B DNA helix: ight handed Right handed 10 base pairs per turn Twist 36 Pitch 34 Ǻ turn Rise 3.4 Ǻ per residue Tilt: 6 Minor groove 5.7 Ǻ wide, 7.5 Ǻ deep Major groove 11.7 Ǻ wide, 8.5 Ǻ deep Sugar Pucker: C2’ endo Glycosidic bond angle: anti
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The antiparallel DNA strands form a helical structure: “The Double Helix” This is “B-DNA” with 10 bases per turn, 34Å per turn. The helix axis is in the centre of the base pair.
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ther DNA forms: A NA Other DNA forms: A DNA
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ft anded DNA: Z NA Left handed DNA: Z DNA
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http:// bcs.wiley.com/he bcs/Books?action=resource&bcsId=2261&itemId=0471214957&resour ceId=5855
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G base pairs in Z DNA CG base pairs in Z DNA
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hich conditions favor each helix type Which conditions favor each helix type B DNA is considered the normal conformation. This is the high hydration form. Spine of hydration in minor groove. A helix is common in duplex RNA and RNA DNA hybrid duplexes. In vitro it is the low hydration form. Seen in fiber diffraction experiment. For RNA steric hindrance by 2’ OH pushes duplex into A conformations Z DNA is stabilized by high salt and methanol concentrations in vitro, in vivo it is stabilized by forms as a result of negative supercoiling alternating CG sequences. Z DNA is stabilized by Z DNA binding proteins in vivo.
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hat holds the helix together?
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nucleic_acids_denatured_and_renatured - Nucleic Acids...

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