lipids_and_membranes_annotated

lipids_and_membranes_annotated - ey Sons Inc Lipids and...

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Inc . y & Sons , Lipids and embranes Membranes
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ipids and Biological Membranes Lipids and Biological Membranes opics: Topics Fatty acid/lipid types iological membrane structure: lipids biological membrane structure: lipids membrane proteins i l i l b t t : “fl id biological membrane structure: “fluid mosaic model” bf t i : d i f f i t t membrane function: diffusion, transport and receptors
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ipid Structures Lipid Structures mphipathic molecules: mainly Amphipathic molecules: mainly hydrophobic ater soluble organic solvent soluble Water-insoluble, organic solvent soluble main type: fatty acids Long alkyl chain (hydrophobic) carboxylic acid group (polar head) can contain cis double bonds
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compare melting temperatures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids: what are the trends? How does a C=C affect the properties? Increasing length of saturated chain increases mp
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length of chain can vary from 12-24 ay o carbons, usually an even number of carbons unsaturation: if more than 1 double bond, the C=C are usually not adjacent to each other 8:2n 18:0 Octadecanoic acid 18:1n-9 Octadecenoic acid 18:2n-6 Cis-cis 9,12Octadecadienoic acid 18:3n-3 All cis 9,12Octadecatrienoic acid
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Inr in number of C=C r he Increasingnumber of CC decreasesthe melting point Omega 3 fatty acids, must be ingested cannot be synthesized
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ietary supplements Dietary supplements • ALA a-linoleic acid is precursor of EPA and DHA. Ingested ALA is metabolized into EPA and DHA. DHA and EPA, both are essential lipids, not easily synthesized, best accumulation from food sources. Fish are rich in -3 fatty acids because they are synthesized in marine algae. • Purified DHA and EPA have beneficial health effects. Improved mental health. Improved mental health, decreased symptoms in bi-polar and schizphrenic patients. Brains are 8-10% EPA and DHA. Also decreases symptoms in Rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Cool stuff.
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rans fats Trans fats Oleic acid stearic acid eladic acid
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Trans Fatty Acids rans fatty acids form by partial dehydrogenation • Trans fatty acids form by partial dehydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids ans double bond llows a given fatty acid to A trans double bond allows a given fatty acid to adopt an extended conformation. rans fatty acids can pack more regularly, and Trans fatty acids can pack more regularly, and show higher melting points than cis forms • Occur only in small amounts naturally yy • Have no nutritional value
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Trans Fatty Acids in Foods • Consuming trans fats increases risk of cardiovascular disease – Avoid deep-frying partially hydrogenated egetable oils vegetable oils – Current trend: reduce trans fats in foods endy’ sK F C ) (Wendy s, KFC) – B saturated and trans fats increase levels of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol), trans fats also lower levels of HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol); thus increasing the risk of oronary heart disease coronary heart disease.
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torage Lipids: Triacylglycerols Storage Lipids Triacylglycerols 3 fatty acids esterified to a glycerol molecule h f tt id b i bl The fatty acids can be variable
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2010 for the course CHEM 237 taught by Professor Elisabethdaub during the Fall '10 term at Waterloo.

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lipids_and_membranes_annotated - ey Sons Inc Lipids and...

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