Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 - Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy...

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Anatomy – the study of the structures of the body and the relationship of these structures to one another Physiology – a branch of biology and is defined as a science concerned with the functions of organisms and bodily structures Structural Mechanisms of Speech Production -Respiratory system – Main purpose is to supply oxygen to blood. Also serves as generating source for speech production -Ribs (Thoracic Cage) -Consist of 12 pairs -All ribs are attached at the back to the vertebral column -Upper 7 pairs attached to the sternum directly and independently (true ribs) -The next 3 pairs (8,9, 10) also attached to sternum but with a common cartilaginous band (false ribs) -The lowest 2 pairs of ribs (11, 12) are not attached to the sternum (floating ribs) -Diaphragm -Thick, dome shaped muscle that forms the floor of the thoracic (chest) cavity -Separates the stomach from the thorax -Plays a major role in breathing because the lungs rest on it -Lungs (Part of the pulmonary system) -Upper airway -mouth, nose, and upper throat -Lower airway -trachea – a tube of 20 cartilage rings -Trachea (commonly known as the windpipe) -Connects mouth, nose, and throat to lungs -Passageway for oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide to leave -Tube formed by about 20 rings of cartilage -Starting point for the lower airway -Breathe in -chest muscles pull ribs up and out -diaphragm moves down -Breathe out -chest muscles relax -diaphragm moves up to push air out of lungs -Phonatory system -Responsible for producing voicing during speech - Larynx – valve that is the sound producing mechanism for speech and prevents substances from entering the trachea
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Laryngeal Structures -Hyoid bone -U-shaped bone that suspends the larynx -Floats under the jaw but it not an intergral part of the larynx - Cartilages - connective tissue that keeps the larynx in place and help it make adjustments -thyroid -Butterfly shaped -Forms front and side walls of larynx -cricoid -Top ring of the trachea -Linked to thyroid cartilage and to the arytenoid cartilages through the cricoarytenoid joint (the arytenoids are connected through this joint, which permits circular and sliding movements) -arytenoid -Two small pyramid-shaped cartilages that sit on top of the cricoid and attach to the true vocal folds and cause them to open and close -Muscles -Adductors – pull the folds together -Lateral cricoarytenoid -Rotates arytenoid cartilages to bring vocal folds together -interarytenoid -Two sets of muscles that go from one arytenoid cartilage to the opposite cartilage -Abductor – pull the folds apart -Posterior cricoarytenoid -Moves arytenoid cartilages laterally -Lengthens and tenses the folds -Cricothyroid -Stretches the vocal folds and increases their tension -Thyroarytenoid muscles -Intrinsic (internal) -Attachments are within the larynx -a.k.a. vocal folds, vocal cords, or vocalis muscle -Extrinsic (external) -At least one attachment outside the larynx -Lower and raise larynx, indirectly influencing sound production - Glottis – the space between the vocal folds -Phonation
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2010 for the course COMD 2081 taught by Professor Domma during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 - Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy...

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