Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 - Articulation and Phonological...

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Chapter 5 - Articulation and Phonological Disorders Experiments in the Infant Speech Perception -The Language or Research -Stimulus – something that evokes a reaction -Visual, auditory, economic -Control trial – same old, same old -Change trial – presentation of new information -Whoa! What’s that? -Reliability – the extent to which any measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials. Without reliability, the results can’t be generalized to non-participants. Infant Speech Perception -Babies can be taught to discriminate between speech stimuli, even those not in their language -This teachability declines around age one. The Inadequate Alphabet -In an ideal world, each letter would represent one sound: one letter, one sound -Not in English alphabet. -In English this concept is only partially true -English has redundant and useless sounds: c, q -luck, account, quick -English has 26 letters and 46 sounds -13 spellings for /u/ -9 spellings for /i/ International Phonetic Alphabet (page 139 table) -A set of symbols that represent most sounds -Each symbol stands for one sound -Note the absence of c and q Phonemic vs. Phonetic -Phone = sound -Phonology = the study of the sound system of a language -Phoneme = the smallest unit of sound that can affect meaning -Not a single invariable entity and that is why its defined as a group or family of sounds -Phonemic – the abstract system of sound -Phonetic – the concrete production of specific sounds Classification of Speech Sounds -Vowels – vocal tract remains open
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-The oral tract is more open in the production of vowels than in the production of consonants. -Vowels sound different from each other because of the differing shape of the vocal tract when they’re produced -Consonants – some degree of constriction in the oral cavity Vowels -All vowels are voiced -Classified according to: -Lip position (rounded, unrounded or retracted) -Tongue position -Front, central, back, high, mid, low -2 vowels together are a diphthong -Produced by continuous change in the vocal tract shape Consonants -Produced by constricting the oral cavity -Classified according to -manner of articulation
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2010 for the course COMD 2081 taught by Professor Domma during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 - Articulation and Phonological...

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