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LEC 18 Concepts of Metabolism

LEC 18 Concepts of Metabolism - REGULATION OF PROTEIN...

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REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS I. Bacteria
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Bacterial genome ! Escherichia coli ! One double helix in a circle ! 4288 genes rRNA genes tRNA genes Structural protein genes A,B,YZ ! Transcription and translation mRNAs A,B,YZ Polysomes A,B,YZ Proteins A,B,Y,Z
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(From the “Metabolism” lecture) B. Control of metabolism Basic principle: control metabolism by controlling the amount or activity of appropriate enzymes. 1. Control amount of enzyme protein 2. Control activity of existing enzymes
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Control of gene expression and protein synthesis in prokaryotes The rate of synthesis of each protein is orchestrated for balanced growth of generalized cells, and for differentiation of specialized cells. Examples: ! Carbon source ! Amino acids
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Example: Lactose utilization in E. coli ! Lactose: glucose-galactose (2 sugars connected by O bridge) ! Utilization requires uptake (carrier, "permease") and breakdown to separate sugars (beta-galactosidase)
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Induction ! Synthesis of carrier and beta-galactosidase
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