lecture - Galaxy similar to the Milky Way 200 billion stars...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–52. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Galaxy similar to the Milky Way: 200 billion stars! Molecular cloud condensing into stars Star swarm, formerly a molecular cloud Cross section through solar disk; the central blob becomes the sun; the disk condenses into a system of planets. β Pictoris, a solar disk becoming a solar system Inner Planets Outer Planets Inner vs . Outer Planets Inner vs . Outer Planets Thousands of asteroids occupy the gap between inner and outer planets. Three major Earth divisions The (Traditional) Definition of a Mineral: 1. Solid 2. Naturally occurring 1. Inorganic 1. Fixed composition, or one that varies within limits 2. Has an ordered, repeating atomic structure: crystalline Quartz cluster from Peru Quartz scepter From Madagascar Magnetite from Africa Fluorite from New Orleans A single crystal is defined as a regular array of atoms that is repeated with the same orientation and without interruption throughout the sample. Nicholas Steno (1638-1686) Crystals are distinguished by their flat faces and the angles between them. These two crystals look very different, but they have the same faces. Fig. 3-1 Constant Interfacial Angles The different crystal faces can be identified by the constant angles they have with adjacent faces. Fig. 3-2 R.J. Hauy (1743 - 1822) Fig. 3-3 unit cell-the small block that is repeated to make up the crystal is the unit cell Max Theodor Felix von Laue (1879 -1960) diffraction Fig. 3-4 Laue photogr aph Fig. 3-4 Laue photogr aph Experiment Results • regular spacing between planes of atoms • unique patterns for each mineral Crystals: Ordered Arrangement X-ray diffraction “dots” are made by reflections off of internal planes of atoms. If the plane spacing, X-ray wavelength, and incident angle are optimal, reflected X-rays will reinforce one another. There are many internal planes in any crystal structure. Fig. 3-6 Unit Cell • defines atomic arrangement • repeating pattern, building block of crystals (Figure 3-8) s the unit cell? The Y-shaped pattern that is repeated the unit cell? The short and long brick pattern that is repeate Mineral Not a mineral Glass Not a mineral Copp er nugge t, Michi gan Gold Silver Are minerals…remember the 5 criteria Ice Is a mineral Wood Coal Not minerals… Opal pineapple Not minerals… (lack of crystalline structure at the atomic level Called a Mineraloid) Pearl s Not minerals… (organically Produced) Riebeckite Na 2 (Fe, Mg) 3 Fe 2 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 Amosite Fe 7 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 These are minerals, but HAIR is not (chemical formulas are not important to know) n = (+), in the nucleus Ion= charged atom on = neutral, in the nucleus-anion= negatively charged atom on = (-), involved with bonding-cation= positively charged a Table 3-1 Which are cations? Which are anions? See also Table 3-1. Which are abundant in the Earth’s crust? Balls are atoms sticks are bonds CHEMICAL BONDS AND CLASSIFICATION OF MINERALS CHEMICAL BONDS AND CLASSIFICATION OF MINERALS CHEMICAL BONDS CHEMICAL BONDS...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 07/07/2010 for the course GEOL 303 taught by Professor Long during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

Page1 / 310

lecture - Galaxy similar to the Milky Way 200 billion stars...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 52. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online