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01_Assessment_of_toxicity_S091

01_Assessment_of_toxicity_S091 - Biology 354 Environmental...

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Biology 354 Environmental Toxicology 1 2 nd Half Dr. Bruce Greenberg , B2-154A, ex 33209, [email protected] (2 nd half of course) Office Hours (for Dr. Greenberg) : Tues. & Thurs. 10:30 pm – 11:30 pm Course Time and Location: Tuesdays and Thursdays 9:30-10:20am in MC 4021
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Course Outline Lecture Topic Textbook Introduction to toxicology, terminology and scope Chapter 1-2 Contaminants from source to receptor to impact Chapter 1-2 Inorganic pollutants Chapter 2 Organic pollutants Chapter 2 Radioactivity Chapter 14 Sources and Fate of Contaminants Chapter 2 (part of 3&4) Uptake, biotransformation, detoxification, elimination & accum. Chapter 3 Factors influencing bioaccumulation Chapter 4 Complex effluents Pharmaceuticals and the environment Midterm exam – In Class Assessment of toxicity Chapter 9 Assessment of toxicity Chapter 9 Toxicity test methods Chapter 8 Toxicity test methods Chapter 8 Biochemical and physiological effects of contaminants Chapters 6 & 7 Bioindicators and biomarkers risk assessment Chapters 6 & 7 Risk assessment Chapter 13 If time permits: Remediation and QSAR
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Assessment of Toxicity Topics to be covered 1. Categorizing responses to toxicants 2. Bioassay strategies 3. Dose response curves 4. Comparison of toxicants and hormesis
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1. Types of toxicants 1. Toxicant transport and transformation 1. Exposure of target organism 1. Response of target organisms Information needed for Risk Assessment
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The contaminant can now begin to act
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Jimi Hendrix Lethal dose The dose makes the poison, and the endpoint makes the experiment Keith Richards Doses probably should have been lethal by now
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Categorizing responses to toxicants (P. 173) Degree of response Lethal: Causing death, or sufficient to cause death or a very rapid and catastrophic response Sublethal: Below a level that directly causes death Types of responses 1. Population Population density Productivity Mating success/fucundity Alterations in the genetic structure of the population Community Diversity, characteristic species, habitat, chemical parameters (oxygen, biol O 2 demand)
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Categorizing responses to toxicants (cont’d) 2. Whole organism Mortality Reproduction Lesions/necrosis Tumors/teratogenesi s Behavior Growth 3. Biochemical/metabolic Enzyme inhibition
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