02_Toxicity_test_methods_S09

02_Toxicity_test_methods_S09 - Toxicity Test Methods 1....

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Toxicity Test Methods 1. Categories and types of tests 2. Selection criteria for tests 3. Examples of tests 4. Variables that impact on toxicity test outcomes
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Picking an appropriate bioassay
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Categories of toxicity test methods Whole organism Acute: Endpoint is generally survival Chronic: Growth or reproduction Multi-species: Survival or growth Biomarker/Bioindicator Biochemical indicator: Respiration, mutation, etc. To be covered after mechanisms are covered
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Partial list of whole organism test methods (P. 150, 189, 191) Environment Canada, US-EPA or ASTM supported Needed for chemical approval and site assessment 2. Green tree frog (and other amphibians) 3. Algal or plant growth and chlorophyll assays 4. Avian tests 5. Acute tests with fish (esp. medaka, minnows, large 6. Microinvertabrates 7. Survival and life cycle tests with Daphnia magna 8. Acute tests with saltwater bivalve mollusks 9. Acute tests with sediment organisms (e.g. Hyalella azteca )
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Selection of a test organism 1. Should be widely available 2. Should be readily culturable in the laboratory in sufficient quantities 3. Genetics and history of the organism should be known 4. Relative toxicity of various classes of toxicants should be known (allows for positive controls) 5. Sensitivity of the species should be representative to the environment or class of organism 6. In multi-species tests, interactions between organisms in the test need to be understood 7. Must satisfy regulatory agency mandates
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Daphnia magna – 48 h acute test One of the most commonly used tests “Large” and commonly available Easy to culture Freshwater microcrustacean, cladoceran, Water flea 2 mm The Test 10 neonates (< 24 h old) in a starvation test 100 ml test solution, 5 concentrations plus a negative control, in triplicate Lighting: Room light, 16 h Light/8 h Dark Static renewal Death is end point, usually based on immobility Measurements at 24 h intervals in what is usually a 48 h test Positive control: Pentachlorophenol or Copper
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This note was uploaded on 07/10/2010 for the course BIOL 354 taught by Professor Brucegreenberg during the Spring '09 term at Waterloo.

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02_Toxicity_test_methods_S09 - Toxicity Test Methods 1....

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