05_Bioindicators_and_Biomarkers_S09

05_Bioindicators_and_Biomarkers_S09 - Bruce Greenberg...

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Bruce Greenberg B2-154 Ext: 33209 [email protected]
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Bioindicators and Biomarkers 1. Definitions 2. Introduction to biomarkers 3. Examples of biomarkers 4. Validation
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Biomarkers are great measures of toxicity if you can understand them
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Biomarker – Any biological response to an environmental chemical at the individual level or below demonstrating departure from the normal status Molecular Biochemical Physiological Histological Morphological Behavioral Bioindicator – Biological responses at higher organizational levels; population, community and ecosystem
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Biomarkers of effect – (i.e. measure of a real toxic effect) Demonstrate adverse effect(s) on the organism Biomarkers of exposure – Indicates exposure of the organism to a contaminant, but gives no information of the degree of adverse effects
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Organizational Level Example Receptor binding TCDD binding to Ah receptor Nonylphenols to estrogen receptor Molecular/Biochemical Gene expression Induction of Cyto P450 Inhibition of ALAD Inhibition of photosynthesis Physiological changes Eggshell thinning Loss of chlorophyll Individual Behavioural changes Growth Examples of Biomarkers at Different Organizational Levels
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Relationship between health status and contaminant concentration Concentration Physiological condition Homeostasis Compensation Acclimation Reversible Irreversible Non-compensation Death Health Status Healthy Stress Incurable-Stress Exposure Effect
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05_Bioindicators_and_Biomarkers_S09 - Bruce Greenberg...

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