This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: es adjust immediately to reflect the new information. Drops in CAR prior to an event can easily occur in an efficient capital market. For example, consider a sample of forced removals of the CEO. Since any CEO is more likely to be fired following bad rather than good stock performance, CARs are likely to be negative prior to removal. Because the firing of the CEO is announced at time 0, one cannot use this information to trade profitably before the announcement. Thus, price drops prior to an event are neither consistent nor inconsistent with the efficient markets hypothesis. Rejects. Because the CAR increases after the event date, one can profit by buying after the event. This possibility is inconsistent with the efficient markets hypothesis. Supports. The CAR does not fluctuate after the announcement at time 0. While the CAR was rising before the event, insider information would be needed for profitable trading. Thus, the graph is consistent with the semi-strong form of efficient markets. 3. b. c. 328 d. Supports. The diagram indicates that the information announced at time 0 was of no value. Similar to part a, such movement is neither consistent nor inconsistent with the efficient markets hypothesis (EMH). Movements at the event date are neither consistent nor inconsistent with the efficient markets hypothesis. 4. Once the verdict is reached, the diagram shows that the CAR continues to decline after the court decision, allowing investors to earn abnormal returns. The CAR should remain constant on average, even if an appeal is in progress, because no new information about the company is being revealed. Thus, the diagram is not consistent with the efficient markets hypothesis (EMH). 329 CHAPTER 15 LONG-TERM FINANCING: AN INTRODUCTION
Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions 1. The indenture is a legal contract and can run into 100 pages or more. Bond features which would be included are: the basic terms of the bond, the total amount of the bonds issued, description of the property used as security, repayment arrangements, call provisions, convertibility provisions, and details of protective covenants. The differences between preferred stock and debt are: a. The dividends on preferred stock cannot be deducted as interest expense when determining taxable corporate income. From the individual investor’s point of view, preferred dividends are ordinary income for tax purposes. For corporate investors, 70% of the amount they receive as dividends from preferred stock are exempt from income taxes. b. In case of liquidation (at bankruptcy), preferred stock is junior to debt and senior to common stock. c. There is no legal obligation for firms to pay out preferred dividends as opposed to the obligated payment of interest on bonds. Therefore, firms cannot be forced into default if a preferred stock dividend is not paid in a given year. Preferred dividends can be cumulative or non-cumulative, and they can also be deferred indefinitely (of course, indefinitely deferring the dividends might have an undesirable effect on the market value of the stock). Some firms can benefit from issuing preferred stock. The reasons can be: a. Public utilities can pass the tax disadvantage of issuing preferred stock on to their customers, so there is a substantial amount of straight preferred stock issued by utilities. b. Firms reporting losses to the IRS already don’t have positive income for any tax deductions, so they are not affected by the tax disadvantage of dividends versus interest payments. They may be willing to issue preferred stock. c. Firms that issue preferred stock can avoid the threat of bankruptcy that exists with debt financing because preferred dividends are not a legal obligation like interest payments on corporate debt. The return on non-convertible preferred stock is lower than the return on corporate bonds for two reasons: 1) Corporate investors receive 70 percent tax deductibility on dividends if they hold the stock. Therefore, they are willing to pay more for the stock; that lowers its return. 2) Issuing corporations are willing and able to offer higher returns on debt since the interest on the debt reduces their tax liabilities. Preferred dividends are paid out of net income, hence they provide no tax shield. Corporate investors are the primary holders of preferred stock since, unlike individual investors, they can deduct 70 percent of the dividend when computing their tax liabilities. Therefore, they are willing to accept the lower return that the stock generates. 2. 3. 4. 5. The following table summarizes the main difference between debt and equity: Repayment is an obligation of the firm Grants ownership of the firm Provides a tax shield Liquidation will result if not paid Debt Yes No Yes Yes Equity No Yes No No Companies often issue hybrid securities because of the potential tax shield and the bankruptcy advantage. If the IRS accepts the security as debt, the firm can use it as a tax shield. If the securit...
View Full Document