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Unformatted text preview: cted in the current share price. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. a. b. c. 11. A technical analyst would argue that the market is not efficient. Since a technical analyst examines
past prices, the market cannot be weak form efficient for technical analysis to work. If the market is not weak form efficient, it cannot be efficient under stronger assumptions about the information available. 324 12. Investor sentiment captures the mood of the investing public. If investors are bearish in general, it may be that the market is headed down in the future since investors are less likely to invest. If the sentiment is bullish, it would be taken as a positive signal to the market. To use investor sentiment in technical analysis, you would probably want to construct a ratio such as a bulls/bears ratio. To use the ratio, simply compare the historical ratio to the market to determine if a certain level on the ratio indicates a market upturn or downturn. Of course, there is a group of investors called contrarians who view the market signals as reversed. That is, if the number of bearish investors reaches a certain level, the market will head up. For a contrarian, these signals are reversed. 13. Taken at face value, this fact suggests that markets have become more efficient. The increasing ease with which information is available over the Internet lends strength to this conclusion. On the other hand, during this particular period, large-capitalization growth stocks were the top performers. Value-weighted indexes such as the S&P 500 are naturally concentrated in such stocks, thus making them especially hard to beat during this period. So, it may be that the dismal record compiled by the pros is just a matter of bad luck or benchmark error. 14. It is likely the market has a better estimate of the stock price, assuming it is semistrong form efficient. However, semistrong form efficiency only states that you cannot easily profit from publicly available information. If financial statements are not available, the market can still price stocks based upon the available public information, limited though it may be. Therefore, it may have been as difficult to examine the limited public information and make an extra return. 15. a. b. Aerotech’s stock price should rise immediately after the announcement of the positive news. Only scenario (ii) indicates market efficiency. In that case, the price of the stock rises immediately to the level that reflects the new information, eliminating all possibility of abnormal returns. In the other two scenarios, there are periods of time during which an investor could trade on the information and earn abnormal returns. 16. False. The stock price would have adjusted before the founder’s death only if investors had perfect forecasting ability. The 12.5 percent increase in the stock price after the founder’s death indicates that either the market did not anticipate the death or that the market had anticipated it imperfectly. However, the market reacted immediately to the new information, implying efficiency. It is interesting that the stock price rose after the announcement of the founder’s death. This price behavior indicates that the market felt he was a liability to the firm. 17. The announcement should not deter investors from buying UPC’s stock. If the market is semi-strong form efficient, the stock price will have already reflected the present value of the payments that UPC must make. The expected return after the announcement should still be equal to the expected return before the announcement. UPC’s current stockholders bear the burden of the loss, since the stock price falls on the announcement. After the announcement, the expected return moves back to its original level. 18. The market is often considered to be relatively efficient up to the semi-strong form. If so, no systematic profit can be made by trading on publicly-available information. Although illegal, the lead engineer of the device can profit from purchasing the firm’s stock before the news release on the implementation of the new technology. The price should immediately and fully adjust to the new information in the article. Thus, no abnormal return can be expected from purchasing after the publication of the article. 325 19. Under the semi-strong form of market efficiency, the stock price should stay the same. The accounting system changes are publicly available information. Investors would identify no changes in either the firm’s current or its future cash flows. Thus, the stock price will not change after the announcement of increased earnings. 20. Because the number of subscribers has increased dramatically, the time it takes for information in the newsletter to be reflected in prices has shortened. With shorter adjustment periods, it becomes impossible to earn abnormal returns with the information provided by Durkin. If Durkin is using only publicly-available information in its newsletter, its ability to pick stocks is inconsistent with the efficient markets hypothesi...
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