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Chapter06_LEC - Chemistry A Molecular Approach 1st Edition...

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Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA Chemistry – A Molecular Approach , 1 st Edition Nivaldo Tro Chapter 6 Thermochemistry 2008, Prentice Hall
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 Heating Your Home most homes burn fossil fuels to generate heat the amount the temperature of your home increases depends on several factors how much fuel is burned the volume of the house the amount of heat loss the efficiency of the burning process can you think of any others?
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Nature of Energy even though Chemistry is the study of matter, energy effects matter energy is anything that has the capacity to do work work is a force acting over a distance Energy = Work = Force x Distance energy can be exchanged between objects through contact collisions
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 Classification of Energy Kinetic energy is energy of motion or energy that is being transferred thermal energy is kinetic
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 Classification of Energy Potential energy is energy that is stored in an object, or energy associated with the composition and position of the object energy stored in the structure of a compound is potential
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6 Law of Conservation of Energy energy cannot be created or destroyed First Law of Thermodynamics energy can be transferred between objects energy can be transformed from one form to another heat → light → sound
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 7 Some Forms of Energy Electrical kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical charge Heat or Thermal Energy kinetic energy associated with molecular motion Light or Radiant Energy kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an atom Nuclear potential energy in the nucleus of atoms Chemical potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of their position
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8 Units of Energy the amount of kinetic energy an object has is directly proportional to its mass and velocity KE = ½mv 2 2 2 s m kg 1 joule of energy is the amount of energy needed to move a 1 kg mass at a speed of 1 m/s 1 J = 1 2 2 s m kg when the mass is in kg and speed in m/s, the unit for kinetic energy is
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9 Units of Energy joule (J) is the amount of energy needed to move a 1 kg mass a distance of 1 meter 1 J = 1 N∙m = 1 kg∙m 2 /s 2 calorie (cal) is the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water by 1°C kcal = energy needed to raise 1000 g of water 1°C food Calories = kcals Energy Conversion Factors 1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 joules (J) (exact) 1 Calorie (Cal) = 1000 calories (cal) 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.60 x 10 6 joules (J)
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10 Energy Use Unit Energy Required to Raise Temperature of 1 g of Water by 1°C Energy Required to Light 100-W Bulb for 1 hr Energy used to Run 1 Mile (approx) Energy Used by Average U.S.
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