Chapter07_LEC - Chapter 7 The Quantum Mechanical Model of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 The Quantum- Mechanical Model of the Atom 2007, Prentice Hall Chemistry: A Molecular Approach , 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 The Behavior of the Very Small • electrons are incredibly small a single speck of dust has more electrons than the number of people who have ever lived on earth • electron behavior determines much of the behavior of atoms • directly observing electrons in the atom is impossible, the electron is so small that observing it changes its behavior Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 A Theory that Explains Electron Behavior • the quantum-mechanical model explains the manner electrons exist and behave in atoms • helps us understand and predict the properties of atoms that are directly related to the behavior of the electrons why some elements are metals while others are nonmetals why some elements gain 1 electron when forming an anion, while others gain 2 why some elements are very reactive while others are practically inert and other Periodic patterns we see in the properties of the elements Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 The Nature of Light its Wave Nature • light is a form of electromagnetic radiation composed of perpendicular oscillating waves, one for the electric field and one for the magnetic field an electric field is a region where an electrically charged particle experiences a force a magnetic field is a region where an magnetized particle experiences a force • all electromagnetic waves move through space at the same, constant speed 3.00 x 10 8 m/s in a vacuum = the speed of light, c Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 Speed of Energy Transmission Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6 Electromagnetic Radiation Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 7 Characterizing Waves • the amplitude is the height of the wave the distance from node to crest or node to trough the amplitude is a measure of how intense the light is – the larger the amplitude, the brighter the light • the wavelength, ( λ ) is a measure of the distance covered by the wave the distance from one crest to the next or the distance from one trough to the next, or the distance between alternate nodes Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8 Wave Characteristics Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9 Characterizing Waves • the frequency, ( ν ) is the number of waves that pass a point in a given period of time the number of waves = number of cycles units are hertz, (Hz) or cycles/s = s-1 1 Hz = 1 s-1 • the total energy is proportional to the amplitude and frequency of the waves the larger the wave amplitude, the more force it has the more frequently the waves strike, the more total force there is Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10 The Relationship Between Wavelength and Frequency • for waves traveling at the same speed, the shorter the wavelength, the more frequently they pass...
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Chapter07_LEC - Chapter 7 The Quantum Mechanical Model of...

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