Chapter08_LEC - Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1st Ed....

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Chapter 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements 2007, Prentice Hall Chemistry: A Molecular Approach , 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2 Mendeleev order elements by atomic mass saw a repeating pattern of properties Periodic Law – When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically put elements with similar properties in the same column used pattern to predict properties of undiscovered elements where atomic mass order did not fit other properties, he re-ordered by other properties Te & I
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Periodic Pattern H nm H 2 O a/b 1 H 2 Li m Li 2 O b 7 LiH Na m Na 2 O b 23 NaH Be m/nm BeO a/b 9 BeH 2 m MgO b 24 MgH 2 Mg nm B 2 O 3 a 11 ( BH 3 ) n B m Al 2 O 3 a/b 27 (AlH 3 ) Al nm CO 2 a 12 CH 4 C nm/m SiO 2 a 28 SiH 4 Si nm N 2 O 5 a 14 NH 3 N nm P 4 O 10 a 31 PH 3 P nm O 2 16 H 2 O O nm SO 3 a 32 H 2 S S nm Cl 2 O 7 a 35.5 HCl Cl nm 19 HF F a = acidic oxide, b = basic oxide, a/b = amphoteric oxide m = metal, nm = nonmetal, m/nm = metalloid
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 Mendeleev's Predictions
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 What vs. Why Mendeleev’s Periodic Law allows us to predict what the properties of an element will be based on its position on the table it doesn’t explain why the pattern exists Quantum Mechanics is a theory that explains why the periodic trends in the properties exist
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6 Electron Spin experiments by Stern and Gerlach showed a beam of silver atoms is split in two by a magnetic field the experiment reveals that the electrons spin on their axis as they spin, they generate a magnetic field spinning charged particles generate a magnetic field if there is an even number of electrons, about half the atoms will have a net magnetic field pointing “North” and the other half will have a net magnetic field pointing “South”
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 7 Electron Spin Experiment
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8 Spin Quantum Number, m s spin quantum number describes how the electron spins on its axis clockwise or counterclockwise spin up or spin down spins must cancel in an orbital paired m s can have values of ±½
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9 Pauli Exclusion Principle no two electrons in an atom may have the same set of 4 quantum numbers therefore no orbital may have more than 2 electrons, and they must have with opposite spins knowing the number orbitals in a sublevel allows us to determine the maximum number of electrons in the sublevel s sublevel has 1 orbital, therefore it can hold 2 electrons p sublevel has 3 orbitals, therefore it can hold 6 electrons d sublevel has 5 orbitals, therefore it can hold 10 electrons f sublevel has 7 orbitals, therefore it can hold 14 electrons
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10
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This note was uploaded on 07/10/2010 for the course CHEM 1710 taught by Professor Sasi during the Three '10 term at University of New England.

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Chapter08_LEC - Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1st Ed....

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