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Unformatted text preview: Which Are You Watching, an Individual Reactive Oxygen Species or Total Oxidative Stress? H ATSUO M AEDA Hyogo University of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Kobe, Japan The fluorometric measurement of an individual reactive oxygen species (ROS) provides useful biological and biochemical information on ROS as important mediators for the pathological conditions of various diseases and yet requires a highly specific probe toward the target ROS. To design such a specific ROS probe, this report proposes a new strategy based on protection deprotection chemistry between fluoresceins and their derivatives protected with benzenesul- fonyl groups. The strategy has allowed developing new fluorescent probes toward extra- and intracellular hydrogen peroxide or superoxide. Herein, I outline the strategy used for the de- sign of these ROS probes and their probe performance with high selectivity toward hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, which could not be achieved until a simple deprotection, namely, a nonredox reaction, was used as a fluorescing process. Key words: fluorescent probes; reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; fluorescent microscopy; probe design Introduction To measure total oxidative stress, or to detect gener- ation of an individual reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide (O 2 ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl radical (HO ): It is a question. At present, the best answer is believed to be the latter for most researchers working on biological chemistry and bio- chemistry of ROS. Existing fluorescent probes, such as dichlorofluo- rescein (DCFH) and hydroethidine (HE), have played important roles over the last several decades to dis- close the relationship between ROS generation and the pathological conditions of various diseases. 15 These traditional probes detect ROS sensitively but nonse- lectively. 3 , 69 This major drawback prevents these flu- orescent probes from satisfying those who are anxious to understand the biological and biochemical events, induced or regulated by generation of an individual ROS, as they are. Accordingly, there is a great demand for fluorescent probes with much higher selectivity toward an individual ROS than that of the traditional ones. Address for correspondence: Hatsuo Maeda, Ph.D., 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-8530, Japan. Voice: + 81-78-304-3122. firstname.lastname@example.org Recently, we proposed a new strategy for the design of fluorescent probes based on protection deprotection chemistry involving fluoresceins ( 3 ) and their benzenesulfonyl (BES) derivatives (F IG . 1B). 10 Synthetic methods for a wide variety of BES chlo- rides 11 as well as 3 12 , 13 have already been established....
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This note was uploaded on 07/11/2010 for the course SPECTOGRAP 545 taught by Professor Gdf during the Spring '10 term at AIB College of Business.
- Spring '10