ecosystemstudent-1

ecosystemstudent-1 - 33-1Living in Ecosystems33-2What Is...

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Unformatted text preview: 33-1Living in Ecosystems33-2What Is Ecology?the study of the interactions of organisms with other organisms and with the physical environmentLevels of ecological organization1. Populationsindividuals of the same species that live together2. Communitiespopulations of different species that live together in the same place 33-3CommunitiesA community is the component of an ecosystem that is livingcommunities are recognized by their most dominant species (usually a plant)33-4What Is Ecology?Levels of ecological organization4. Ecosystemsa community and the nonliving factors with which it interacts 5. Biomesmajor terrestrial assemblages of plants, animals, and microorganisms that occur over wide geographic areas and have distinctive physical characteristics6. Biosphereinteractive system including all the worlds biomeszone of life in the air, water, and land that surrounds the Earth 33-5A Closer Look at EcosystemsEcosystems are the fundamental units of ecologyEcosystems are complexthey are dynamicthey have limiting factors that affect diversity and structureenergy is consumednutrients are cycledenvironmental factors also limit diversityrainfalltemperature33-6Ecological levels in a coral reef33-7Autotrophsare producers33-8Heterotrophsare consumersHerbivores: eat plants33-9Consumers:Carnivores: eat other animals Omnivores:eat plants and animals33-10Consumers:Decomposers:break down dead organic wasteDetritusfeeders:eat partially decomposed organic matter in the soil and water33-11Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling:33-12Community Composition and Diversity:The compositionof a community--a listing of populations present Diversity--variety are there many different species, or just a few?Ecological succession:change in community compositionover time33-13Primary succession:happens in areas where nothing has grown beforePioneer plants form and enrich the soil, and new species move into the area 33-14The pioneers cannot competereplaced by new arrivals Over time other species move in33-15Secondary Succession: new, different growth in an area where existing growth was disturbedHow does it get disturbed?33-16Why Succession Happens:because species make habitat and resources change--through tolerance, facilitation, and inhibitionToleranceearly species are good in a harsh environment, but cannot compete well with other plants33-17Facilitationone type of plant alters conditions so that they favor growth of another type33-18Inhibitionone species can make conditions change so that it cant grow well anymore, and something else moves inOver time, diversity increases33-19Population density:the number of individuals per unit area Distributioncan be uniform, random, or clumped Population Characteristics:33-20Population Growth:Every population has a biotic potential:the maximum possible growth rate Exponential growth:as the population size increases, the growth rate gets faster33-21...
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This note was uploaded on 07/12/2010 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor B during the Winter '10 term at Washtenaw.

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ecosystemstudent-1 - 33-1Living in Ecosystems33-2What Is...

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