# MARCH1PP - CAUTION BE AWARE of Unintentional Consequences...

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CAUTION!  BE AWARE of Unintentional Consequences

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Potential Problems in Potential Problems in Sampling Sampling Poor Sampling Frame Cost of Sampling Built -In Bias
Cost of Sampling Cost of Sampling Money Time Wide Geographic Region

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Major Errors in Major Errors in Sampling Sampling Bias: Consistent, repeated divergence in the same direction of a sample statistic from its associated population parameter. Lack of Precision: Large theoretical variation in a sample statistic
Sampling Error Sampling Error The difference between the sample statistic and its corresponding population parameter. Population: 97, 103, 96, 99, 105 (Mean = 100)

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Non-Sampling Errors Non-Sampling Errors Survey Timing Survey Mode Interviewer – Subject Relationship Survey Topic Question Wording Question Sequence
Statistical Significance Statistical Significance An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance.

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Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing What is a Hypothesis? A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of testing.
Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing What is Hypothesis Testing? A procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected or is unreasonable and should be rejected.

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Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing Examples of hypotheses made about a population parameter are: The mean monthly income for systems analysts is \$3,625. Twenty percent of all juvenile offenders are caught and sentenced to prison.
Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing Null Hypothesis H 0 : A statement about the value of a population parameter.

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