637-678 - Ch. 1 : The What and How of Statistics A....

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Ch. 1 : The What and How of Statistics A. Statistical Analysis – collection, organization, and interpretation of data according to well-defined procedures. o Variable – anything that can vary o Data – information about different variables o Data Distribution – when data are assembled and put together in a list B. Levels of Measurement o NOMINAL level of measurement categories must be mutually exclusive : answers cannot be placed into more than one category categories must be collectively exhaustive: you have to have a category for every observation or case that you’re classifying or recording o ORDINAL level of measurement Must be some notion of order or a way to measure more/less than EX. Levels of education (high school post-college… or anywhere inbetween) o INTERVAL level of measurement Notion of equal intervals in measurement EX. Asking people to tell you their age at their last birthday o RATIO level of measurement (sometimes simply combined with interval) has all the properties of the interval level of measurement BUT the ratio level has a true or known ZERO point EX. How many hours of TV you watch a day Zero is a “legitimate” answer **NOTE** some cases that appear to be RATIO are actually INTERVAL. EX. A zero on a thermometer doesn’t represent and ABSENCE of any temperature C. Samples and Populations o Population ( or universe) – all possible cases that meet certain criteria PROBLEMS Constant state of flux Difficulty in having access to an entire population therefore samples are used as a substitute for the entire population o Sample – a portion of a population Being representative means that the sample has a similar ratio as the population. EX.
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637-678 - Ch. 1 : The What and How of Statistics A....

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