CHEM 102 clemson Acids and Bases Lab Report

CHEM 102 clemson Acids and Bases Lab Report - Project 7...

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Project 7 “Acids and Bases” Chemistry 102 Laboratory, Instructor: Abstract This paper describes the identification and analysis of three (1 team member was absent) unknown acids and bases in order to determine their respective concentrations so that proper disposal can occur. Anion and cation analysis led to the finding of the unknown solution’s species. Through titrations the concentration and pH of the solutions were found. Solution 6 was found to be NaOH and maintain a concentration of 1.20 x 10^-3 M. The species of solution 2 was NH 4 OH with a concentration of 1.25 x 10^-3 M. Solution 5 was found to be CH 3 OH 2 - Na + with a concentration of 1.07 x 10^-3 M. 2 known solutions that are regularly consumed by people were analyzed for concentration and pH to verify their safety, Powerade and Vinegar. Powerade maintained a concentration 1.03 x 10^-4 M with a pH of 3.99. Vinegar had a concentration of 1.20 x 10^-3 M and a pH of 2.92. Both are safe to consume and the unknown solutions can all be disposed of by pouring down a sink with a glass of water. Introduction The goal of this experiment was to indentify the species of known and unknown solutions and analyze their relative concentrations. This can be accomplished by using various methods to identify the cations and anions of each substance. By finding the relative concentrations of
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hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in solution, the concentration can be calculated (Cooper, M. M., p.155, 156). The existence of these ions comes about from the disassociation of water. This occurs because the strong dipole moment of the oxygen atom can pull other hydrogen atoms away, leaving their electron. Since water molecules are constantly in motion, these disassociations are just as often replaced by the rejoining of complete water molecules. Water, having a pH of 7, has an even balance of these two ions. Its equilibrium constant will equal the pH because there is an even balance of protons joining and disjoining hydroxide ions. Other compounds in aqueous solution cause a shift by either taking up protons or releasing them and hence the shift in equilibrium. It is this shift that can be measured. An acid is willing to donate a proton to a hydroxide to form a new water molecule. This leaves an extra proton in solution from the disassociation of water. These excess protons are what yield acidic properties for a solution. Bases are those which accept free protons, thereby increasing the number of free hydroxide ions in solution. It is this excess which creates the basic properties of the solution (Tro., p. 558, 559). The reason acids are willing to provide these protons to hydroxide ions is that doing so lowers their energy. The energy required to break the bond of hydrogen to the acid is lower than that required to create the bond of the hydrogen ion with the hydroxide ion. In the case of an acid, the activation energy required to begin this reaction is the energy required to break the bonds of the protons from acids. This energy must be lower that the energy given off by the
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CHEM 102 clemson Acids and Bases Lab Report - Project 7...

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