Neuroscience_1_2_Outline

Neuroscience_1_2_Outline - PSYC1101-I I. Neural Bases of...

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PSYC1101-I 1/26/2010 I. Neural Bases of Behavior Two types of cells: - nerve cells (neurons): transmission and integration of information - glia cells: provide support for neurons - (physical, nutitional support, digestive support…) - 1. Neurons: The Origin of Behavior i. Components of a neuron 1. Soma (Cell body) : contains biochemical structures that keeps the cell alive 2. Dendrites (tree branches) : collects messages from neighboring neurons (acts like antennas receiving signals) 3. Axon (Axle) : conducts electrical impulses from the soma to other neurons, or uscles, glands (like an electrical cable that carries information) a. Myelin sheath: membrane that wraps around the axon b. Node of Ranvier: gaps in myelin sheath c. Terminal buttons: secrete chemical substance on to the next neuron d. Synapse: junction where N1 – axon and N2-dendrites meet e. Synaptic cleft: gap between terminal buttons and dendrites ii. Types of Neurons (Depending on the Function ) 1. Sensory: information from sensory organs - once reaches brain… 2. Interneuron: transmit and integrate information between neurons - now that it is recognized… 3. Motor: information to muscles 2. How is information transmitted in the nervous system? i. Electrical transmission process: transmission along the neuron Via ions (electrically charged molecules) that pass in and out of the cell membrane and creates electrical charge 1. Resting Potential: when there is no information transmission (unstimulated neuron) o natural electric charge of the neuron (polarized) o inside cell charge – outside cell charge - -70 millivolts 2. Action Potential: when there is information transmission (stimulated neuron) o +40 millivolts o electrical impulse moves down the axon 3. Return to resting potential: g o K+ flows out o Na+/K+ pump works to exchange these ions in and out of cell 4. Some Features of Action Potentials: a. All-or-none law: o neuron either fires or not (threshold of -50)
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Neuroscience_1_2_Outline - PSYC1101-I I. Neural Bases of...

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