Development_1_2_Outline-2 - PSYC 1101-I 16-18/2010...

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PSYC 1101-I 16-18/2010 I. Prenatal Development Zygote begins to divide within 36hrs Fertilization occurs within 34hrs Teratogens affecting the offspring in the embryonic or fetal stages, have long lasting effects: -heroin, cocaine>>born addicted , birth defects(e.g. respiratory difficulties, cognitive deficits) Alcohol- ‘fetal alcohol syndrome’: mental retardiation, hyperactivity, heart defects, vulnerability to depression and antisocial behavior Smoke>> lower birth weight, attentional deficits 1. Germinal Stage (first 2 weeks after conception) - conception - formation of zygote and cell division - migration of zygote down the fallopian tube - implantation to uterus wall - zygote is created - -attached to uterus - Placenta forms 2. Embryonic Stage (2-8 weeks) - Developments during this stage - Vulnerability to teratogens (effects of drugs, alcohol, smoking, and malnutrition) -organs begin to form Most vulnerable period to outside agents ‘teratogens’ 3. Fetal stage (3 months – birth) - Developments during this stage - Rapid brain development - Skeletal structures harden - Organs begin to function(3-4 th month) - Moderately vulnerable to teratogens - Fetus can hear outside sounds - When born can recognize mother’s voice. 1. Vision: -limited range of vision in newborns Attentive to new stimuli Habituate to same stimuli Mimic facial expressions 2. Reflexes a. Rooting reflex: move mouth toward object touching the cheek b. Sucking reflex: suck anything that enters mouth 3. Voluntary movement a. Top-to bottom rule: First learn to move their head and chest, then arms and trunk, then legs and feet b. Inside-to-outside rule: trunk, then elbows/knees , then hands, feet III. Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development with 4 Stages
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PSYC 1101-I 16-18/2010 Shema construction: how infant views the world e.g. ‘a round object must be a ball’ “When I pull something it comes closer” “Puppy” for 4 legged animals A. General principles of the theory: a. Schemas b. Assimilation: apply existing schemas to interpret new situations Say ball when sees an apple Pulls a new toy to come closer Says puppy when sees a cat c. Accommodation: changes the schema to explain a new experience d. E.g. pulls mom’s hair, mom tries to go back What type of schemas do children develop? \How do they apply assimilate them?
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Development_1_2_Outline-2 - PSYC 1101-I 16-18/2010...

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