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Unformatted text preview: fitthlliitlfi‘f its Metabolism is the study of the chemistry, regulation, and energetics of the thousands of reactions occurring in a biological cell. The process of metabolism takes place via sequences of consecutive, enzymecatalyzed reactions. at Organisms are of two metabolic types: (1) Autotrophs use atmospheric C02 as the sole source of carbon and energy from the sun to make other biomolecules; (2) heterotrophs obtain energy by ingesting complex carbon— containing compounds usually found in the autotrophs. e Metabolic processes are grouped into two categories: (1) Catabolism is the degradative phase that releases energy for the production of ATP; (2) anabolism is the synthetic phase, which uses the energy in ATP to make complex biomolecules. a In terms of chemistry, metabolic processes can be grouped into six categories: oxidationareduction; group transfer; hydrolysis; nonhydrolytic cleavage; isomeriza- tion; bond formation with energy from ATP. e ATP is the universal molecular carrier of free energy in organisms. The energy is released when a phosphoryl group in ATP is transferrred to another molecule such as water (ATP+H20 : ADP + HPOi‘). SEEM EXERSESES finderstaraliag‘ Terms Define the following terms in 25 words or less. a. Catabolisrn i. Pliosphoryl group transfer b. Anabolism potential c. Anaerobic organisms j. PEP d. Metabolic pathway k. Thioesters e. ATP l. Fractional centrifugation f. Convergence of pathways m. Chromatography g. Dehydrogenases n. Electrophoresis h. AG“ 0. AcetyleCoA Reviewing Caaeegts €42 Classify each of the following reactions into one of the six types of reactions defined in Table 14.2. 3' COO— H COO“ l \ / (,in C | + FAD :: ll + FADHZ CH C I Z _ / \ cor)“ ooc H b (Itoow (Itoor cHOH x cnorofs“ CHzoerer' CHZOH Study Exercises % 6- (IJHZOH CHzoroi“ ICHOH + ATP : (13mm + ADP CHZOH CHZOH d. i) HtN— chcr—NhkcHCOO—Jr H20 = R R’ Hg'N—(lecoow H§N——(]?HCOO‘ R R’ e. (790’ H l + \ . (1:0 + H : C’TZO + to; CH3 CH3 f. (700' C00' | l C:O c:o + to; l ATP 2 1 + ADP+ P3 | CH2 CH3 l Corr MS Name the general class of enzyme that catalyzes eacl reaction in Problem 14.2. 344 Several statements about stage II] of catabolism are writ ten below. Circle those that are correct and explain why th: incorrect statcmen ts are wrong. a. The reactions in stage III are common to all fuel molecules 11. The overall ACT” for stage Ill is a positive value. c. Stage III involves hydrolysis of proteins, starch, and triacyl glycerols to their respective monomeric components. (1. Stage “1 produces the majority of ATP generated in the cell 1.4.5 The following terms can be used to characterize catabor lism or anabolism. Assign each term to the proper direction oi metabolism. Reduction reactions Energy input necessary Energy release Convergence of reactions Cleavage of ATP Biosynthesis Oxidation reactions Production of ATP Divergence of reactions Degradation 34.6 Consider the following reaction: pyruvate + NADH + H+ ‘—— lactate + NAD+ The Kgq is 1.7 X to“. Calculate AG°’. Strainer t4 Basic Concepts of Cellular Metabolism and Bioenergetics $4.)? How many phosphoanhydride bonds are present in each of the following biomolecules? a. ATP b. ADP c. AMP d. 1,3—Bisphosphoglycerate e. Phosphoenolpyruvate f. Glucosedephosphate g. Glyceraldehyde-3vphosphate h. Fructose»1,6—bisphosphate i. Pyrophosphate 34.8 Answer the following questions about ATP. 3. How many phosphoanhydride bonds are present ? b. What kind of chemical linkage is present between the ribose and the triphosphate group? c. How are the negative charges on ATP usually neutralized in the cell? d. What kind of chemical bond links adenine and ribose? Mali Consider the following reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase. Answer the following questions about the reac» tion proceeding from left to right. . + ./0 (HgCHZOH + NAD : CH3C \H + NADH i H+ a. What is the oxidizing agent? b. What is the reducing agent'.7 . Mitt? Look again at the reaction in Exercise 14.9 and answer the following questions about the reaction proceeding from right to left. a. What is the oxidizing agent? b. What is the reducing agent? Mail Draw as many resonance structures as you can for HPO: (Pl). 0 _ q _ _ ll Hml: Begin Wit/t O‘P—OH l _ 0 l4. l2 What is the common structural feature in NAD+, FAD, ATP and CoASH? Do they have any common biological func- tions‘.’ Him In this chapter it is stated that “standard conditions do not normally exist in living cells.” Compare and contrast stati- dard conditions and normal cellular conditions. 34.1.4 Discuss the metabolic differences between autotrophs and lietcrotrophs, VHS What is the difference between AG° and A6”? 34.35 Draw as man resonance structures as ten can for y ) pyropliosphatc, FR. M] 7 Draw as many resonance structures as you can for ATP. Warking Problems 14.1.3 Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing oxidation level beginning with the least oxidized (or most reduced). b. €112:an c. coon COOH d. CH3COOH e. CH3CHZOH t. CH3—CH3 g. C02 Hint: Begin series with ethane (f). iii-£6 Consider the following reaction: glucoseil-phosphate : glucose—6<phosphate After 1 M reactant and product were mixed and allowed to reach equilibrium at 250C, the concentration of each compound was measured: [glucose—l—phosphate]eq : 0.1 M [glucosefi—phosphate]eq : 1.9 M Calculate Kgq and AG°’ for the reaction. What is the favorable direction for this reaction? £8213 Arrange the following phosphorylated compounds in the order of increasing phosphoryl group transfer potential 3. 0 ll C|3~OPO§T (IZHOH CHZOP03_ l,3~Bisphosphoglycerate (lfiBPG) [1. ATP c. AMP d. $00— lcnopo’é‘ CHzOPO3_ 2,3~Bisphosphoglyceratc (2,3-BPG) e. PEP f. ADP 14 271 What is the spontaneous direction of each of the follow- ing reactions under standard conditions? a. PEP e ADP : pyruvate + ATP b. ATP ~ H30 : ADP + Pl c. ADP + H20 : AMP + Pi d. Glucose»6-phosphate + ADP : glucose + ATP e. Glitcose-(i—phosplrate ‘1—‘3 glucose-l—phosphate Hint: Use the data in Table 14.6 to answer this question. 33>??? Consider the following general reaction: A 2 B After A and B were mixed in l M concentrations and allowed to come to equilibrium at 25°C, the concentration of each was measured and found to be equal ([Aj : [BJ). Calculate K’sq and AGm for the reaction. What is the spontaneous direction for this reaction? How much energy is released in this reaction under standard conditions? 7423 Why is it an advantage to the cell for the mainstream catabolic reactions to converge to the common intermediate acetyvaoA? 1424- Consider the following phosphoryl group transfer reac— tion which is the first step in glucose catabolism by glycolysis: glucose + A'I'P : glucose»6-phosphate + ADP The AC?“ for the reaction is —l(i.7 kJ/mol. 3. Calculate Kg, [or the reaction. 1]. Define K ’cq in terms of reactant and product concentrations, 0. What is the ratio of [glucoseo—phosphate] to [glucose] if the ratio of [ADP] to [ATP] is 10? 34.25 Write the products for the following hydrolysis reactions. if a. R~C—OCH3 + “20" 0 ll 1). RiC—NHZ + 1120—» O c. RwyifiNACHCOO‘ + HZO—> l l, 0 d. 0:0 + HZOH H l N e. < >0 + H2()~——> 1.4.26 It has been said that in order for life to reproduce, develop, and thrive, there are three basic requirements: (1) a blueprint (directions), (2) materials. and (3) energy What specific biomole‘ cules or biological processes provide each of these needs? €4.27 Consider the following reaction of gluct)se—6—phosphate. glucosevovphosphate + H20 : glucose «l— Pi 3. Define the type of chemistry. Choose from redox, isomer, ization. and phosphoryl group transfer (hydrolysis). b. The AGm for the uncatalyzed reaction is , 13.8 kJ/mol.What is the spontaneous direction for the reaction under standard conditions? 0. An enzyme was discovered that catalyzes the reaction. What is the AG“ for the reaction when the enzyme is present? 1. Greater than 713.8 kJ/rnol 2. Less than 713.8 kJ/mol 3. *138 kJ/mol Study Exercises “14.28 In the process of photosynthesis, the carbon atoms of C02 are used to make glucose. Study the structure of glucose in Figure 7.8 and determine if the overall process is one of oxi— dation or reduction. Explain. i429 Phosphocreatine is a compound in our muscles that has a high phosphoryl group transfer potential, It can be used to make ATP from ADP Complete the following reaction by drawing a structure for all missing products. COO T l CH2 l NiCH; + ADP : 7 + ATP cam? H‘l POE“ 14.33 In animal metabolism, glucose is converted to CO; and H20. Is this overall process of glucose breakdown one of oxi- dation or reduction? Explain. £43? The AG°' for the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to H20 is 730.5 kJ/mol. Calculate the K’eq under standard conditions. 3.4.3? Complete the following reactions and predict if at the equilibrium point. the ratio of [productsj/[reactants] is greater or less than one. Assume that an appropriate catalyst is present. it a. R7C7$7CH3 + H20 : b. ATP + HZO ‘7’* c. Glucose I ATP ““ $433 Listed below are several characteristics of metabolism. Divide the list into two groups. those characteristics that are associated with catabolic reactions and those associated with anabolic reactions. 3. Breaks covalent bonds Yields energy Requires energy input Reduction of NAD+ Makes covalent bonds Oxidation of NADH ewe-or: 34.34 Below is a list of biocheinicals that are important in metabolic processes. Select those that are generally considered as products of anabolism, a. ATP NAD+ NADP+ NADH ADP NADPH #5175195:- iii-.35 Identify the type of chemical bond linking the phosphoryl group to each compound listed in Table 14.6. For example, the reactive bond in phosphocnolpyruvate is a phosphoester bond. ...
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