11th lecture_Fiehn BIS103 fatty acid anabolism_winter 2008

11th lecture_Fiehn BIS103 fatty acid anabolism_winter 2008...

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Lipid biosynthesis
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Use of acetyl-CoA in liver (by TCA cycle oxidation and) by ketogenesis forming ketone bodies
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Ketogenesis in liver -CO 2 acetone β -hydroxybutyrate acetoacetate NAD + NADH + H +
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Use of β -hydroxybutyrate as fuel
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Diabetes is a metabolic disorder
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Lipid biosynthesis
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Lipid biosynthesis
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Acetyl-CoA enters the cytosol via the citrate shuttle
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α -Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is committing acetyl-CoA for fatty acid biosynthesis Biotin carrier protein Transcarboxylase Biotin carrier protein Biotin carboxylase Acetyl-CoA
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The fatty acid synthase complex consists of 7 enzymes
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The fatty acid synthase complex consists of 7 enzymes
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The acyl carrier protein ACP uses phosphopantetheine as prosthetic group
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Fatty acid biosynthesis involves four repetitive reactions reduction 4 NADP + NADPH + H + dehydration 3 -H 2 O KS β -ketoacyl-ACP synthase KR β -ketoacyl-ACP reductase ER enoyl-ACP reductase DH β -hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase
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Thioesterase releases the C16 fatty acid
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The fatty acid synthase complex may be formed
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Unformatted text preview: in one single large enzyme The location of fatty acid synthesis differs between plant and animal cells Energy balance of fatty acid biosynthesis Activation 7 acetyl-CoA + 7 CO 2 + 7 ATP Æ 7 Malonyl-CoA + 7 ADP +7 P i Biosynthesis (7 rounds) Acetyl-CoA + 7 Malonyl-CoA + 14 NADPH Æ Palmitoyl-CoA + 7 CO 2 + 7 CoASH + 14 NADP + + 7 H 2 O Sum 8 Acetyl-CoA + 7 ATP + 14 NADPH Æ C16:0 + 8 CoASH + 6 ADP + 6 P i + 14 NADP + + 6 H 2 O Fatty acid elongation Fatty acid desaturation Longer and unsaturated fatty acids Essential fatty acids Arachidonic acid is an important precursor for mammalian hormones Biosynthesis of TAG and membrane lipids 2x Glycerol-3P is the precursor for membrane lipids and TAG Phosphatidic acid is the branch point for membrane lipids and TAG Two strategies for membrane head groups Examples P~glcyerol-3P, P~serine, P~ethanolamine, P~choline PS decarboxylase methyltransferase...
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2010 for the course BIS BIS103 taught by Professor Fiehns during the Winter '09 term at UC Davis.

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11th lecture_Fiehn BIS103 fatty acid anabolism_winter 2008...

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