LECTURE 1 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 1 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 1 LECTURE 1. Russia at the Turn of the Twentieth Century 1. Russia: A Historical Timeline 2. State and Society at the Turn of the Twentieth Century 3. Modernization 4. The Intelligentsia 5. The Revolutionary Movement. Russian Marxism 6. The Political Crisis of The Early 1900s and the Revolution of 1905 7. The End and Aftermath of the Revolution of 1905. The Stolypin Reforms 8. Russian Politics and Society on the Eve of World War I 1. RUSSIA: A HISTORICAL TIMELINE : 1.1. 860s – EARLY 1500s – RUS’ 1.2. EARLY 1500s – 1721 – UNIFIED RUSSIAN STATE // RUSSIA (up to ~ 1700 – also known in the West as “Muscovy”) 1.3. 1721-1917 – RUSSIAN EMPIRE 1917 - REVOLUTION 1.4. 1917-1991 – SOVIET PERIOD 1922-1991 – SOVIET UNION (official name: THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, or USSR) 1991 – COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION 1.5. Since 1991 – RUSSIAN FEDERATION // RUSSIA 2. STATE AND SOCIETY AT THE TURN OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY LARGEST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD POPULATION IN 1897 = 124.5 MILLION + RAPIDLY GROWING: 1900 ~ 135 MILLION, 1913 ~ 175 MILLION (U.S. – 76 MILLION IN 1900; 97 MILLION IN 1913 GERMANY – 56 MILLION IN 1900, 67 MILLION IN 1913 FRANCE – 39 MILLION IN 1900, 40 MILLION IN 1913) 2.1. MONARCHY – ABSOLUTE NICHOLAS II (1894-1917) 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 1 OFFICIALLY – UNDIVIDED, UNLIMITED, UNQUESTIONED AND SACRED POWER OF THE EMPEROR OVER HIS SUBJECTS; THE COUNTRY SEEN AS THE PATRIMONY OF THE ROMANOV DYNASTY IN PRACTICE – THIS VISION WAS LIMITED BY THE IDEOLOGY OF STATE SERVICE (WHICH WAS PROJECTED UPON THE EMPEROR, TOO), AS WELL AS BY PRACTICAL CONCERNS AND THE NEED TO KEEP IN MIND THE INTERESTS AND MOODS OF VARIOUS POPULATION GROUPS AND CLASSES YET THE ETHOS OF ABSOLUTISM – PERVASIVE: -LOW TOLERANCE OF POLITICAL DISSENT; -PECULIAR AND, BY WESTERN STANDARDS, UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS OF CITIZENSHIP (SEEN MOSTLY AS “SUBJECTHOOD”) AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS -SKEPTICAL ATTITUDE TO CONSTITUTIONAL IDEAS AND PARLIAMENTARY DISCUSSION PARLIAMENT (THE DUMA ), POLITICAL PARTIES – NOT UNTIL 1905 (AS A RESULT OF THE 1905 REVOLUTION) -FREQUENT INTRUSIONS OF THE AUTHORITIES IN INTELLECTUAL AND CULTURAL LIFE. CENSORSHIP -HIGHLY MILITARIZED CULTURE 2.2. SOCIETY: DIVIDED INTO ESTATES ( SOSLOVIIA ): LEGALLY CONSTITUTED, HEREDITARY GROUPS OF POPULATION; EACH HAVING A PARTICULAR SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND DISTINCT WAY OF LIFE AS OF 1913: NOBILITY – 1.5% OF THE POPULATION TRADITIONAL SERVICE CLASS OF THE STATE, BULWARK OF THE MONARCHY MOSTLY HEREDITARY, YET PROMOTION TO A NOBLE STATUS THROUGH STATE/MILITARY SERVICE WAS POSSIBLE AND FREQUENT 2.4. CLERGY – 0.5% 2.5. MILITARY – 1% 2.6. URBAN DWELLERS (ARTISANS, WORKERS, MERCHANTS, BUREAUCRATS, ETC.) – 17.5% 2.7. PEASANTS - ~80% + PROXIMITY BETWEEN THE COUNTRYSIDE AND THE CITY 2
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 1 PREDOMINATLY PEASANT CIVILIZATION. BY THE TIME OF WORLD WAR I, NO
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LECTURE 1 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023...

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