LECTURE 2 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 2 HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 2 LECTURE 2 From World War I to the Revolution of 1917 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 2 LECTURE 2. From World War I to the Revolution of 1917 1. World War I as a Factor in Russian History 2. Course of the War 3. Food Supply Crisis in the Big Cities 4. Government Crisis 5. The Start of the February 1917 Revolution: a popular uprising 6. Revolution in the Government 7. Provisional Government and the Soviets. Dual Power 8. Revolutionary Culture ***1. WORLD WAR I AS A FACTOR IN RUSSIAN HISTORY TRADITIONAL QUESTION ASKED BY HISTORIANS (BEGINNING WITH THE ÉMIGRÉ RUSSIAN HISTORIANS IN THE WEST): COULD THE REVOLUTION OF 1917 HAVE BEEN AVOIDED? WAS THE REVOLUTION CONTINGENT ON THE WAR? WAS THE REVOLUTION CATALYZED BY WORLD WAR I, WOULD THE REVOLUTION HAVE HAPPENED BUT FOR THE DESTABILIZING EFFECTS OF WORLD WAR I? AS YOU CAN SEE, THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE REVOLUTION WERE LAID LONG BEFORE THE WAR. AT THE SAME TIME, THE WAR GREATLY AGGRAVATED THE SITUATION IN THE COUNTRY, EXPOSING ALL THE COUNTRY’S WEAKNESSES IN 1914, RUSSIA ENTERED WORLD WAR I IN A SINGULARLY BAD SHAPE: THE ECONOMY WAS DOING WELL. HOWEVER, SOCIETY HAD REACHED A POLITICAL DEADLOCK : DOUBLE POLARIZATION (HAIMSON): WORKERS  EDUCATED SOCIETY  MONARCHY 1914: RUSSIA + BRITAIN + FRANCE + SERBIA GERMANY, AUSTRIA, THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE FOR RUSSIA, THE WAR BEGAN IN AUGUST 1914 AND ENDED IN THE ARMISTICE OF DECEMBER 1917 AND THE BREST-LITOVSK PEACE TREATY OF MARCH 1918 RUSSIA, COMPARED TO OTHER GREAT POWERS: RAPIDLY MODERNIZING 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 2 HOWEVER: 1. FACED FORMIDABLE OPPONENTS – ESPECIALLY GERMANY 2. BESIEGED BY NUMEROUS INTERNAL PROBLEMS AND TENSIONS *** WWI HAD A MAJOR IMPACT ON RUSSIA’S POLITICS – COMMON FOR RUSSIA AND FOR MANY EUROPEAN SOCIETIES: *RISE OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE AS A GOVERNMENT STRATEGY *NEW METHODS OF MASS MOBILIZATION AND STATE SURVEILLANCE *GROWING STATE REGULATION OF THE ECONOMY 2. ***COURSE OF THE WAR: 1914: DEFEAT BY THE GERMANS IN EAST PRUSSIA; VICTORIES OVER AUSTRIA-HUNGARY IN GALICIA; RUSSIAN-GERMAN STALEMATE IN WESTERN POLAND 1915 – GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN OFFENSIVE; THE RUSSIAN ARMY RETREATS, LOSING GALICIA, POLAND, AND LITHUANIA NICHOLAS II ASSUMES COMMAND OF THE ARMED FORCES 1916 – STALEMATE; POSITIONAL WARFARE. SUMMER – RUSSIAN VICTORY IN “THE BRUSILOV OFFENSIVE” (SOUTHWESTERN FRONT). YET THE OFFENSIVE BOGS DOWN + ACHIEVED AT HIGHEST COSTS. STALEMATE BY THE END OF THE YEAR; NO PROSPECTS OF WINNING COLOSSAL CASUALTIES THROUGHOUT THE INITIAL PATRIOTIC UPSURGE GRADUALLY WANES WITH THE MILITARY DEFEATS AND MOUNTING CASUALTIES IN ORDER TO GEAR THE ECONOMY TOWARD THE WAR EFFORT, THE GOVERNMENT ALOWS THE CREATION OF NEW PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS (MUCH WANTED BY THE ED. SOCIETY): – THE UNION OF ZEMSTVOS (1914) -- THE UNION OF TOWNS (1914) 1915 – THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF ZEMSTVOS AND TOWNS ( ZEMGOR ) 2
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 2 - THE WAR AND INDUSTRY COMMITTEES (INCL. THE CENTRAL WAR AND
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2010 for the course HIST 2022 taught by Professor Dkozlov during the Winter '10 term at Dalhousie.

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LECTURE 2 HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 2 LECTURE 2 From World War I to the Revolution of 1917 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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