LECTURE 5 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 5 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 5 LECTURE 5. From the Civil War to the New Economic Policy. NEP economy and society. The Formation of the Soviet Union 1. The political crisis of 1920-21 2. The introduction of NEP 3. Lenin on the NEP 4. Popular perceptions of NEP and Nepmen 5. The “commanding heights”: Soviet government and NEP economy 6. Who were the Nepmen? 7. The formation of the Soviet Union 1.*** THE POLITICAL CRISIS OF 1920-1921 MAP **THE COUNTRYSIDE – KEY TO THIS CRISIS FOOD REQUISITIONING CONTINUES + FEBRUARY 1919 – THE STATUTE ON SOCIALIST LAND ORGANIZATION: ALL UNFARMED LAND THAT HAD BELONGED TO THE GENTRY WAS TO BE GIVEN OVER THE NEW COLLECTIVE FARMS ( KOLKHOZY ) AND STATE FARMS ( SOVKHOZY ) PEASANT RESENTMENT: ALTHOUGH NOT ALL THE FORMER GENTRY LAND, YET SOME OF IT (THE UNFARMED PART) WAS TAKEN AWAY FROM THEM BOLSHEVIKS – MAINTAINED LOYALTY TO THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 1917 DECREE ON LAND (SMALLHOLDING COMMUNAL PEASANT AGRICULTURE), YET WERE IMPATIENT TO TRY THEIR FUTURISTIC VISIONS OF TRANSFORMING PEASANTS INTO SOCIALIST AGRICULTURAL LABORERS EARLY COLLECTIVE AND STATE FARMS – EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNISM ; OFTEN RUN BY ENTHUSIASTS, FREQUENTLY BY OUTSIDERS TO THE COUNTRYSIDE – THE WORKERS WHO CAME FROM THE CITIES AND HAD LITTLE IDEA OF HOW TO TILL THE LAND, OR BY LOCAL RURAL OUTCASTS SUSPICION AND HOSTILITY OF THE PEASANTS TOWARD THE NEW FARMS MOST OF THEM PROVED SHORT-LIVED, AS PEASANTS DESTROYED THEM AT THE FIRST OPPORTUNITY **1921 – FAMINE: 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 5 (BROUGHT BY THE CROP FAILURE OF 1920 BUT ALSO, TO A LARGE EXTENT, BY THE INDISCRIMINATE FOOD REQUISITIONING – THE BRIGADES OFTEN TOOK AWAY THE BARE NECESSITY – SEED GRAIN) (FOOD LEVY DUTIES WERE OFTEN SET HIGHER THAN THE ESTIMATED HARVEST SURPLUS: BOLSHEVIKS CALCULATED THAT THE PEASANTS WOULD HOARD GRAIN ANYWAY) STARVATION DEATH BECOMES COMMON – INCLUDING VIOLENT DEATH. HUMAN LIFE IS CHEAP WIDESPREAD CANNIBALISM INCREASING PEASANT RESISTANCE TO SOVIET POWER – ESPECIALLY AS, DESPITE THE BOLSHEVIK VICTORIES IN THE CIVIL WAR, THERE WAS NO END IN SIGHT TO THE FOOD REQUISITIONING 1918 – 2,000 MEMBERS OF REQUISITIONING BRIGADES MURDERED BY PEASANTS 1919 – 5,000 1920 – 8,000 LARGE-SCALE PEASANT REBELLIONS – START AS SMALL-SCALE REVOLTS AGAINST FOOD REQUISITIONING AND THEN GROW, BOOSTED BY BOLSHEVIK REPRISALS NESTOR MAKHNO – UKRAINE THE CAUCASUS - UP TO 30,000 FIGHTERS WESTERN SIBERIA – UP TO 60,000 PEASANTS TOOK ARMS – THE LARGEST PEASANT REBELLION IN RUSSIA DURING THE CIVIL WAR BELORUSSIA AND WESTERN RUSSIA – PEASANTS FORCED THE SOVIETS OF MINSK AND SMOLENSK TO EVACUATE **THE ANTONOV REBELLION: TAMBOV PROVINCE, 1920-1921 REBELLION WAS LED BY LOCAL SR ACTIVISTS – GRIGORII PLEZHNIKOV AND THEN ALEXANDER ANTONOV (SHORTLY BEFORE, THE HEAD OF THE LOCAL SOVIET MILITIA) 2
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 5 STARTED IN RESPONSE TO SOVIET RETALIATION AGAINST THE
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LECTURE 5 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023...

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