LECTURE 6 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 6 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 6 LECTURE 6. Politics, Society, and Culture under NEP. Bulgakov’s Heart of a Dog 1. Lenin’s Last Years 2. Bolshevik Politics and the NEP issue after Lenin 3. Russian society under NEP: the problem of class 4. Evolving patterns of Soviet culture under NEP 5. Bulgakov and The Heart of a Dog ******8. LENIN’S LAST YEARS 25 MAY 1922 – SUFFERS FROM THE FIRST STROKE. FROM THEN ON, RETURNS TO WORK ONLY SPORADICALLY, AND EVER LESS AND LESS, AS THE DISEASE PROGRESSES THE NATURE OF HIS DISEASE IS STILL UNCLEAR INCREASINGLY PARALYZED, INCAPABLE OF ACTIVE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP THE QUESTION OF SUCCESSION : TROTSKY STALIN TROTSKY – THE MOST AMBITIOUS (AND THEREFORE MOST HATED) LEADER IN THE PARTY LEADERSHIP STALIN – INCREASING POWER IN THE PARTY AND STATE -COMMISSAR FOR NATIONALITIES -COMMISSAR FOR THE WORKERS’ INSPECTORATE -MEMBER OF THE REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY COUNCIL, OF THE POLITBURO,AND OF THE ORGBURO SINCE APRIL 1922 – THE GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE – DE FACTO HEAD OF THE PARTY DESPITE THE MODEST APPEARANCE AND DEMEANOR, GRADUALLY GAINED CONTROL OVER PARTY CENTRAL AND ESPECIALY LOCAL ADMINISTRATIVE APPOINTMENTS – KEY TO THE ENTIRE MACHINERY OF SOVIET POWER (LENIN, ON THE OTHER HAND, VESTED MOST OF HIS ACTIVITIES IN THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE’S COMMISSARS – THE SOVNARKOM) STALIN + ZINOVIEV + KAMENEV TROTSKY “LENIN’S TESTAMENT ” – NOTES HE DICTATED TO HIS SECRETARIES (AND STALIN’S SPIES) IN DECEMBER 1922 – JANUARY 1923. WERE INTENDED AS A LETTER TO THE TWELFTH PARTY CONGRESS (1923) 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia Lecture 6 MOSTLY DIRECTED AGAINST STALIN PROPOSES DEMOCRATIZATION OF THE PARTY CENTRAL COMMITTEE + RESPECT FOR THE RIGHTS OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE FUTURE SOVIET STATE (AGAINST WHAT HE PERCEIVED AS STALIN’S RUSSIAN CHAUVINISM + THE QUESTION OF SUCCESSION: LENIN MEASURES STALIN AGAINST TROTSKY, BUKHARIN, AND OTHER LEADERS ; CLEARLY PRONOUNCES STALIN AS UNFIT FOR THE SUPREME POST IN THE PARTY – STALIN IS TOO RUDE, TOO INTOLERANT OF CRITICISM IT WAS TOO LATE. MOST OF LENIN’S LAST LETTERS WAS READ TO THE PARTY CONGRESS (NOT ON THE ISSUE OF SUCCESSION, HOWEVER – ALTHOUGH THE CONTENT OF THAT LETTER WAS ALSO MADE KNOWN TO THE DELEGATES). YET LENIN’S TEXTS WERE REPRESENTED AS SOMETHING INSPIRED BY HIS FATAL ILLNESS. + MOST DELEGATES TO THE CONGRESS STOOD FOR THE PRINCIPLE OF PARTY UNITY STALIN REMAINS IN PLACE AS THE GENERAL SECRETARY 21 JANUARY 1924 – LENIN DIED ******5. Bolshevik leadership on the NEP question: ******BOLSHEVIK PARTY LEADERSHIP AFTER LENIN: DIVIDED ON THE ISSUE OF NEP’S PERMANENCE HOWEVER, THREE STRATEGIC VIEWPOINTS HELD BY THE BOLSHEVIK LEADERS SUGGESTED THAT NEP WOULD NOT LAST TOO LONG: 1. THE STRONG ANTI-CAPITALIST MENTALITY ENHANCED BY THE REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR 2. THE GENERAL MILITARY ETHOS INHERITED FROM WORLD WAR I, REVOLUTION, AND CIVIL WAR. ATTITUDE TOWARD THE NEPMEN WAS OFTEN PHRASED IN TERMS OF MILITARY
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2010 for the course HIST 2022 taught by Professor Dkozlov during the Winter '10 term at Dalhousie.

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LECTURE 6 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023...

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