LECTURE 7 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 7 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 7 History 2021 / RUSN...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 7 LECTURE 7. The dismantling of NEP in the countryside. Collectivization of agriculture 1. The dismantling of the NEP in the countryside 2. Collectivization of agriculture 1***THE DISMANTLING OF THE NEP IN THE COUNTRYSIDE 1927 – WAR SCARE DIPLOMATIC CRISIS: BRITAIN: THE NEW CONSERVATIVE GOVERNMENT BREAKS OFF DIPLOMATIC TIES WITH THE SOVIET UNION (POLICE RAIDED THE SOVIET DIPLOMATIC MISSION IN LONDON, ACCUSING THE SOVIETS OF ESPIONAGE, SUBVERSION, AND PLAYING A PART IN THE 1927 GENERAL STRIKE IN BRITAIN) + 1926 – POLAND: GENERAL PIŁSUDSKI ESTABLISHES A MILITARY DICTATORSHIP – ON THE SOVIET WESTERN BORDER + 1927 – CHINA: THE KUOMINTANG GOVERNMENT BREAKS WITH THE COMMUNISTS WAR SCARE IN THE SOVIET UNION: PEOPLE ANTICIPATE A NEW WAR WITH THE WEST. FOOD QUEUES, SHOPS EMPTIED, RUMORS OF WAR STALIN : REALIZED THAT THE WAR THREAT WAS NOT REAL. YET USED THE PRETEXT OF THE WAR SCARE AND THE GENERAL PANIC TO MOVE AGAINST HIS POLITICAL RIVALS AND TO EMBARK ON A NEW STRATEGIC POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC COURSE 1927 – GRAIN PROCUREMENT CRISIS CROP FAILURES IN UKRAINE AND NORTH CAUCASUS (PRODUCED 2/3 OF THE COUNTRY’S GRAIN) GRAIN EXPORTS THREATENED (ALWAYS PROVIDED MAIN CAPITAL FOR THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT TO PURCHASE WESTERN EQUIPMENT NECESSARY FOR THE INDUSTRY) + PEASANTS HOARD GRAIN: WAR SCARE + LOW STATE PRICES IMPOSED BY THE STATE ON GRAIN TRADE PEASANTS PREFER TO FEED GRAIN TO THEIR LIVESTOCK AND THEN TO SELL MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS, AS THIS IS MORE PROFITABLE 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 7 INTERRUPTIONS IN FOOD SUPPLY IN THE CITIES STALIN AND HIS ALLIES – ASSESS THE CRISIS IN POLITICAL TERMS : THE “KULAKS” ARE DELIBERATELY HOARDING THE GRAIN “KULAKS” – ACCORDING TO THE SOVIET VIEW, WEALTHY PEASANTS. IN PRACTICE, PEASANT NOTIONS OF WEALTH WERE DETERMINED BY THE SIZE OF LAND ALLOTMENT, AND THAT WAS DRIVEN BY BIOLOGICAL CYCLES OF REPRODUCTION AND BY THE FAMILY SIZE THEREFORE, THE VERY NOTION OF “WEALTHY PEASANTS” WAS RELATIVE: THE SAME FAMILY COULD BE WEALTHY OR POOR AT DIFFERENT MOMENTS, DEPENDING ON ITS SIZE SO, EVEN THIYUGH THE WORD “KULAK” EXISTED, THERE WAS NO CLASS OF WEALTHY PEASANTS OR VILLAGE BOURGEOISIE THE BOLSHEVIKS LARGELY MISSED THAT (WILLINGLY SO), BEING EAGER TO DEFINE “CLASSES” IN THE COUNTRYSIDE AND VIEWING THESE CLASSES IN TERMS OF CLASSICAL MARXIST THEORY – PEASANTS AS PROTO-CAPTIALISTS; “RICH” PEASANTS, “POOR” PEASANTS, “MIDDLE” PEASANTS THIS INCITED ENORMOUS TENSISON AND STRUGGLE IN THE VILLAGE ***INCREASING ROLE OF THE SPECIAL POLICE – OGPU ( OB’EDINENNOE GOSUDARSTVENNOE POLITICHESKOE UPRAVLENIE – UNITED STATE POLITICAL DIRECTORATE – REPLACES ChK (CHEKA) IN 1926. LEADERS – VIACHESLAV MENZHINSKY, GENRIKH YAGODA
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2010 for the course HIST 2022 taught by Professor Dkozlov during the Winter '10 term at Dalhousie.

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LECTURE 7 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 7 History 2021 / RUSN...

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