LECTURE 8 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 8 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 8 History 2021 / RUSN...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 8 LECTURE 8. Cultural Revolution and Industrialization 1. Cultural Revolution 2. Industrialization 1***. CULTURAL REVOLUTION: 1928-1931 – REVIVAL OF REVOLUTIONARY ATMOSPHERE UNDER THE SLOGAN OF “CULTURAL REVOLUTION” (CF. THE WORKS OF SHEILA FITZPATRICK) GOAL: CREATION OF A NEW MASS PROLETARIAN INTELLIGENTSIA THAT WOULD PLAY THE DECISIVE ROLE IN THE INDUSTRIALIZATION, AS WELL AS IN THE COUNTRY’S LEADERSHIP METHOD: REVIVED CLASS WAR THE OLD INTELLIGENTSIA, SINCE THE CIVIL WAR, HAD BEEN CLASSIFIED AS “BOURGEOIS” LENIN: SAW NO NEED FOR CONFRONTATION WITH THE OLD INTELLIGENTSIA , PROVIDED IT SUPPORTED SOVIET POWER. HAD ALWAYS INSISTED ON THE NEED FOR COMMUNISTS TO ACQUIRE BOURGEOIS CULTURE. PROLETARIANS NEED TO LEARN FROM THE BOURGEOIS INTELLIGENTSIA NEP – GENERAL TOLERANCE OF THE AUTHORITIES TOWARD THE OLD INTELLIGENTSIA (“BOURGEOIS SPECIALISTS”) . THE PARTY OFTEN CRITICIZED THE OVER-ENTHUSIASTIC REVOLUTIONARY ADMINISTRATORS FOR ATTACKS ON OLD SPECIALISTS “CULTURAL REVOLUTION” – IN THE OLD, LENINIST SENSE, THE TERM WAS UNDERSTOOD DURING NEP AS THE DEMAND TO “RAISE THE CULTURAL LEVEL” OF THE WORKERS AND PEASANTS THROUGH MASS EDUCATION – LITERACY, BASIC KNOWLEDGE, ETC. WINTER OF 1927-1928 – BEGINNING OF COLLECTIVIZATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION. THINGS BEGIN TO CHANGE: STALIN RAISES THE SLOGAN OF ACTIVE CLASS WAR AS THE PRIME MOVER OF PROGRESS TURNS AGAINST THE OLD INTELLIGENTSIA, EMPHASIZING ITS “BOURGEOIS” NATURE MAY – JUNE 1928 – THE SHAKHTY TRIAL 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 8 THE TRIAL (IN MOSCOW) OF A GROUP OF ENGINEERS AND TECHNICIANS FROM THE SHAKHTY AREA IN THE COAL-MINING DONBASS REGION. ACCUSED OF “WRECKING” AND “SABOTAGE”– CONSCIOUS, DELIBERATE UNDERMINING OF THE INDUSTRY MAXIMUM PUBLICITY – COVERAGE OF THE TRIAL IN NEWSPAPERS SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TRIAL: FOR SEVERAL YEARS TO COME, THE OLD TECHNICAL INTELLIGENTSIA CEASES TO BE THE PARTY’S NATURAL ALLY IN INDUSTRIALIZATION AND BECOMES INTENSELY SUSPECT (IT WAS ALWAYS SUSPECT; YET NOW FROM TOLERANCE THE AUTHORITIES PASSED TO REPRESSION) 1930 – THE TRIAL OF “THE INDUSTRIAL PARTY” – SIMILAR CAMPAIGN AGAINST WRECKERS AND SABOTEURS IN THE INDUSTRY STALIN’S GOAL: MOBILIZE THE MASSES, INTENSIFY VIGILANCE, RE- CREATE A SPIRIT OF REVOLUTIONARY ENTHUSIASM AND MILITANCY + THE STATE SETS THE GOAL OF TRAINING ITS OWN, “PROLETARIAN” INTELLIGENTSIA – FROM THE WORKERS 1928-1931 – OFFICIAL STATE AND PARTY SPONSORSHIP OF CLASS WAR POLICIES AND RHETORIC ONSLAUGHT ON PRIVILEGE AND AUTHORITY OF THE OLD INTELLIGENTSIA . THE NEP-ERA RESENTMENTS OF RANK-AND-FILE BOLSHEVIKS AND WORKERS OVER THIS PRIVILEGE (CF. HEART OF A DOG ) FINALLY FINDS AN OUTLET PARALLEL WITH THAT, STALIN’S STRATEGIC GOAL WAS TO FORM A NEW SOVIET MANAGERIAL CLASS AND A NEW INTELLIGENTSIA – OUT OF WORKERS, WHO WERE PROMOTED TO MANAGERIAL JOBS AND/OR SENT TO UNIVERSITIES FOR TRAINING THE SHIFT IN SOVIET POLITICAL CULTURE IN THE LATE 1920S – EARLY
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2010 for the course HIST 2022 taught by Professor Dkozlov during the Winter '10 term at Dalhousie.

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LECTURE 8 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 8 History 2021 / RUSN...

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